Effect of levetiracetam on cognitive functions and quality of life: a one-year follow-up study
ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to assess changes in cognitive functions and quality of life in patients with epilepsy over one year of treatment with levetiracetam (LEV) as add-on therapy.
Thirty-two patients (16 women; 16 men) who received LEV as an add-on treatment were included, and 27 completed the one-year follow-up period. Extensive neuropsychological assessments, together with a quality-of-life questionnaire were administered at baseline and at one, three, six and twelve months after beginning the add-on treatment. Patients received LEV starting with 500 mg/day in the first week, increasing by a further 500 mg/day per week until a target dose of 2 000 mg/day was reached by the end of the first month.
At the one-year follow-up, a significant improvement was observed in measurements of prospective memory, working memory, motor functions, verbal fluency, attention and quality of life. Performance for neuropsychological and quality-of-life tests was not affected by external variables such as seizure reduction or changes in previous anti-epileptic treatment. Slight changes between patients were observed, but these were not clinically significant.The limited sample size and the lack of a control group should be mentioned as limitations of the study. No control group was evaluated as in our clinical practice it was difficult to establish a comparable group of patients. Changes in the different variables were assessed by comparing baseline information with follow-up results.Despite the study limitations, we consider that the one-year treatment period provides valuable information regarding the drug's long-term effects in this setting.
Results of the present study suggest that long-term LEV treatment as add-on therapy does not interfere with cognitive function and improves quality of life.
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ABSTRACT: Levetiracetam (Lev) is a new antiepileptic drugs, proved to be effective and tolerance in regulatory trials, but these controlled trials do not always predict how useful a drug will be in day to day clinical practice, Retention rates can provide a better indication of efficacy and tolerability in everyday use. Totally 124 patients with more than 3 months disease course were enrolled in the study from June 2007 to December 2007. The LEV dose ranged from 10 to 60 mg/kg per day. Follow up visit were performed at 6 months, 12 months, 24 months and 36 months, and treatment effects , adverse effects were recorded. The LEV retention rates at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months were 93.5% (116/124), 84.7% (105/124), 65.3% (81/124), and 58.9% (73/124), respectively. The predominant causes of withdrawal were lack of efficacy (62.7%) and serious adverse effects (17.6%). In addition, 48.6% (51/105), 60.5% (49/81) and 72.6% (53/73) patients were seizure-free for 12 months, 24 months and 36 months, respectively. In this study, 75 (60.5%) patients experienced at least one side effect. The most common side effects observed were irritability 38.7% (29/75), somnolence 17.3% (13/75), learning disability 16.0% (12/75), anorexia 17.3% (13/75), somnipathy 13.3% (10/75), and abnormal behavior 13.3% (10/75). Our study revealed the high retention rate of LEV in Chinese children and adolescents with epilepsy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.European journal of paediatric neurology: EJPN: official journal of the European Paediatric Neurology Society 11/2014; 19(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ejpn.2014.11.001 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Quality of life (QOL) assessment in patients with epilepsy (PWE) is increasingly recognized as an important component in the management of epilepsy. The objective of the present study was to assess influence of sociodemographic, clinical and pharmacotherapy characteristics collectively on QOL in adult PWE. This was a cross-sectional, observational study in patients with confirmed diagnosis of epilepsy. QOL was assessed using modified QOLIE-10 questionnaire for epilepsy. Univariate and multiple regression analysis were done to determine factors associated with poor QOL, respectively. There were 451 PWE, with a mean age 27.3 ± 8.15 years, 251 (56%) males and 191 (42%) had monthly income < 5000 Indian national rupees (INR)/month. The QOLIE score was 64.1 ± 15.97 (Mean ± SD). The univariate analysis showed factors such as lower monthly income, focal epilepsy, seizure frequency, antiepileptic drug (AED) polytherapy, conventional AEDs and frequent adverse drug reactions (ADRs) had significant negative influence on various domains of QOLIE-10 questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis showed seizure frequency as a significant predictor of most QOL domains and overall score, while ADRs as a significant predictor of all the domains. Seizure type was a predictive factor for domains like emotional well-being and overall score. Present findings showed patients on monotherapy had better QOL while those having lower monthly income, having focal epilepsy and who received conventional AEDs had negative influence on QOL scores. Further, higher seizure frequency and occurrence of ADRs were significant predictors of all the domains of QOL in PWE.11/2014; 5(Suppl 1):S7-S12. DOI:10.4103/0976-3147.145193
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ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to many undesired problems and complications, including immediate and long-term seizures/epilepsy, changes in mood, behavioral, and personality problems, cognitive and motor deficits, movement disorders, and sleep problems. Clinicians involved in the treatment of patients with acute TBI need to be aware of a number of issues, including the incidence and prevalence of early seizures and post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE), comorbidities associated with seizures and anticonvulsant therapies, and factors that can contribute to their emergence. While strong scientific evidence for early seizure prevention in TBI is available for phenytoin (PHT), other antiepileptic medications, eg, levetiracetam (LEV), are also being utilized in clinical settings. The use of PHT has its drawbacks, including cognitive side effects and effects on function recovery. Rates of recovery after TBI are expected to plateau after a certain period of time. Nevertheless, some patients continue to improve while others deteriorate without any clear contributing factors. Thus, one must ask, 'Are there any actions that can be taken to decrease the chance of post-traumatic seizures and epilepsy while minimizing potential short- and long-term effects of anticonvulsants?' While the answer is 'probably,' more evidence is needed to replace PHT with LEV on a permanent basis. Some have proposed studies to address this issue, while others look toward different options, including other anticonvulsants (eg, perampanel or other AMPA antagonists), or less established treatments (eg, ketamine). In this review, we focus on a comparison of the use of PHT versus LEV in the acute TBI setting and summarize the clinical aspects of seizure prevention in humans with appropriate, but general, references to the animal literature.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 08/2014; 10:1469-77. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S50421 · 2.15 Impact Factor