Principal Component Regression Analysis of the Relation Between CIELAB Color and Monomeric Anthocyanins in Young Cabernet Sauvignon Wines

Center for Viticulture and Enology, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Haidian District, Beijing, PR China.
Molecules (Impact Factor: 2.42). 02/2008; 13(11):2859-70. DOI: 10.3390/molecules13112859
Source: PubMed


Color is one of the key characteristics used to evaluate the sensory quality of red wine, and anthocyanins are the main contributors to color. Monomeric anthocyanins and CIELAB color values were investigated by HPLC-MS and spectrophotometry during fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon red wine, and principal component regression (PCR), a statistical tool, was used to establish a linkage between the detected anthocyanins and wine coloring. The results showed that 14 monomeric anthocyanins could be identified in wine samples, and all of these anthocyanins were negatively correlated with the L*, b* and H*ab values, but positively correlated with a* and C*ab values. On an equal concentration basis for each detected anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy3-glu) had the most influence on CIELAB color value, while malvidin 3-O-glucoside (Mv3-glu) had the least. The color values of various monomeric anthocyanins were influenced by their structures, substituents on the B-ring, acyl groups on the glucoside and the molecular steric structure. This work develops a statistical method for evaluating correlation between wine color and monomeric anthocyanins, and also provides a basis for elucidating the effect of intramolecular copigmentation on wine coloring.

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    • "The analyses of anthocyanins in the enzyme assays and in the grape skin extracts were carried out according to the method reported by Han et al. (2008) with little alteration. An Agilent 1100 series LC-MSD trap VL ( "
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    ABSTRACT: Generally, red Vitis vinifera grapes only contain monoglucosidic anthocyanins, whereas most non-vinifera red grapes of the Vitis genus have both monoglucosidic and bis-glucosidic anthocyanins, the latter of which are believed to be more hydrophilic and more stable. Although previous studies have established the biosynthetic mechanism for formation of monoglucosidic anthocyanins, less attention has been paid to that of bis-glucosidic anthocyanins. In the present research, the full-length cDNA of UDP-glucose: anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase from Vitis amurensis Rupr. cv. 'Zuoshanyi' grape (Va5GT) was cloned. After acquisition and purification of recombinant Va5GT, its enzymatic parameters were systematically analyzed in vitro. Recombinant Va5GT used malvidin-3-O-glucoside as its optimum glycosidic acceptor when UDP-glucose was used as the glycosidic donor. Va5GT-GFP was found to be located in the cytoplasm by analyzing its subcellular localization with a laser-scanning confocal fluorescence microscope, and this result was coincident with its metabolic function of modifying anthocyanins in grape cells. Furthermore, the relationship between the transcriptional expression of Va5GT and the accumulation of anthocyanidin bis-glucosides during berry development suggested that Va5GT is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of bis-glucosidic anthocyanins in V. amurensis grape berries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Phytochemistry 07/2015; 117:363-372. DOI:10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.06.023 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    • "In contrast to optical remote sensing devices (satellite or airborne sensors), colorimetric devices do not suffer the shadow effect caused by topography terrain and/or clouds (Schott 1997), the main disadvantage of these approaches. Previous studies have successfully used reflectance color measurements expressed by means of the CIELAB color coordinates (CIE Publication 15–2; CIE 1986) to study the phytopigment content of several food types (e.g., Mínguez- Mosquera et al. 1991, 2005; Han et al. 2008; Moyano et al. 2008) and building stone biofilms, mainly consisting of filamentous cyanobacteria (e.g., Prieto et al. 2002, 2004; Sanmartín et al. 2010a, b). Nevertheless, to our knowledge, such measurements have not been used to study phytopigments in sediments as a proxy for the measurement of algae content. "
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeThe quantification of phytopigments in riverbed sediments deserves further attention because it provides information about eutrophic levels, and therefore about sediment and water quality. Due to the current interest in the study of eutrophication processes, there is a need for the development of a rapid, simple, cost-effective, and nondestructive method of quantifying phytopigment content. We describe one method based on color measurements and without the need for extraction and chemical assay. Materials and methodsSediment cores were collected along the watercourse of the Anllóns River (northwest Spain). The reflectance color measurements were analyzed with the CIELAB color parameters, using Cartesian (L*a*b*) and cylindrical (L*C*abhab) coordinates. Phytopigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, phaeopigments and total carotenoids) were extracted with dimethylsulphoxide and were determined spectrophotometrically. Results and discussionThe CIELAB color parameters were significantly correlated with phytopigment content (involving logarithmic, inverse, and simple data). The linear regression equations were used to predict chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid contents, as well as the total pigment contents from parameter a* (redness–greenness of the color) and parameter C*ab (chroma of the color), and values of adjusted R 2 were close to 0.9. The closest relation between phytopigments and color parameters corresponded to chlorophyll a, which may be estimated by means of Chla = 46.4–70.6 log10 (a*) and Chla = −15.7 + 238.1 (1/C*ab) as predictive equations. The phaeophytinization quotient is somewhat questionable due to the low adjusted R 2 values obtained. ConclusionsThis work demonstrates that it is possible to determine phytopigment contents in riverbed sediments by means of a nondestructive colorimetric method employing the CIELAB color parameters. In addition, the abundance of phytopigments in the sediment core showed no clear trend either along the longitudinal axis of the river or in relation to sediment depth. KeywordsBenthic algae–Chlorophyll–CIELAB color measurements–River sediments–Settled phytoplankton
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    ABSTRACT: Phenolic compound profiles were investigated by HPLC-MS in two consecutive years to assess genotypic variation in berry skins of nine red Vitis vinifera cultivars. The results showed that the types and levels of phenolic compounds greatly varied with cultivar. Common wine grape cultivars such as Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischt and Merlot contained more types of anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, stilbenes and phenolic acids than Gamay, Yan73, Pinot Noir, Zinfandel and Muskat Rosovyi. Yan 73 and Pinot Noir had abundant anthocyanins, but only a few nonanthocyanin phenolic compounds. Gamay, Zinfandel and Muskat Rosovyi contained only a few anthocyanins and flavonols. For a grape cultivar, the ratio of one anthocyanin content to total anthocyanin content did not change greatly from one year to the next, unlike for non-anthocyanins. Cluster analysis showed that except for Syrah and Yan 73, the phenolic profiles in the tested grape cultivars had no significant year-to-year variations.
    Molecules 12/2009; 14(12):4922-35. DOI:10.3390/molecules14124922 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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