Additive Effects of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Hypertension on Early Markers of Carotid Atherosclerosis
ABSTRACT Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has emerged as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. However, OSA is frequently associated with several risk factors for atherosclerosis, including hypertension (HTN). The impact of OSA and HTN alone compared with the association of both conditions on carotid atherosclerosis is not understood. We studied 94 middle-aged participants free of smoking and diabetes mellitus who were divided into 4 groups: controls (n=22), OSA (n=25), HTN (n=20), and OSA+HTN (n=27). All of the participants underwent polysomnography and carotid measurements of intima-media thickness, diameter, and distensibility with an echo-tracking device. Compared with controls, intima-media thickness and carotid diameter were similarly higher in OSA (713+/-117 and 7117+/-805 microm), and HTN groups (713+/-182 and 7191+/-818 microm), with a further significant increase in OSA+HTN patients (837+/-181 and 7927+/-821 microm, respectively; P<0.01). Carotid distensibility was significantly lower in HTN (P<0.05) and OSA+HTN subjects (P<0.001) compared with controls. In the OSA+HTN group, carotid distensibility was significantly lower than in the OSA group and controls (P<0.05 for each comparison). Multivariate analysis showed that intima-media thickness was positively related to systolic blood pressure and apnea-hypopnea index. Apnea-hypopnea index was the only factor related to carotid diameter. Age and systolic blood pressure were independently related to carotid distensibility. In conclusion, the association of OSA and HTN has additive effects on markers of carotid atherosclerosis. Because early markers of carotid atherosclerosis predict future cardiovascular events, including not only stroke but also myocardial infarction, these findings may help to explain the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with OSA.
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ABSTRACT: Background. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with coronary artery disease. Intermittent hypoxia associated with OSA increases sympathetic activity and may cause systemic inflammation, which may contribute to atherosclerosis leading to an increase in the size of carotid intima media thickness (CIMT). Methods. PubMed and Cochrane library were reviewed by utilizing different combinations of key words: sleep apnea, carotid disease, intima media thickness, and carotid atherosclerosis. Inclusion criteria were English articles; studies with adult population with OSA and without OSA; CIMT recorded by ultrasound in mean and standard deviation or median with 95% confidence interval; and OSA defined as apnea hypopnea index of ≥5/h. A total of 95 studies were reviewed for inclusion, with 16 studies being pooled for analysis. Results. Ninety-five studies were reviewed, while 16 studies were pooled for analysis; since some studies have more than one data set, there were 25 data sets with 1415 patients being pooled for meta-analysis. All studies used ultrasound to measure CIMT. CIMT standardized difference in means ranged from -0.883 to 8.01. The pooled standardized difference in means was 1.40 (lower limit 0.996 to upper limit 1.803, (P < 0.0001). Conclusion. Patients with OSA appear to have increased CIMT suggestive of an atherosclerotic process.International journal of vascular medicine 08/2013; 2013:839582. DOI:10.1155/2013/839582
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has emerged as an independent risk factor for carotid atherosclerosis (CA) and cerebrovascular disease in middle-aged subjects. Currently, there is no study providing a causal relationship between SDB and cerebrovascular lesions in elderly. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of SDB on CA in a cohort of healthy elderly subjects. METHODS: Seven hundred and fifty-five participants of a cross-sectional study on the association between SDB and cardiovascular morbidity, aged 68yr at study entry, were examined. All subjects underwent carotid ultrasonography and risk factors for atherosclerosis including smoking, metabolic syndrome and hypertension were examined. An apnea + hypopnea index (AHI)>15 was considered indicative of SDB. RESULTS: Presence of carotid lesion was found in 35% of the sample, predominantly in men and in overweight subjects. The most frequent alteration was arteriosclerosis present in 74% of cases, with stenosis >50% found in only 9% of subjects. No significant difference in the prevalence of carotid lesion was found between subjects with and without SDB, subjects with an AHI>30, even though, having a slight increase in CA. At the logistic regression analysis, male gender (p<0.001), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.001), dyslipidemia (p=0.003) and hypertension (p=0.009) were the variables independently associated with carotid lesions even in severe cases. CONCLUSION: The incidence of CA in healthy elderly subjects is mediated more by gender, metabolic factors and hypertension than by presence of SDB. Further clinical studies including extensive evaluation of all atherosclerotic factors are needed to elucidate the predisposing role of SDB for cerebrovascular risk.Sleep Medicine 11/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2012.08.016 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) provides an accurate assessment of blood pressure (BP) and shows non-dipper BP pattern in many sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) patients with hypertension (HTN); however, little information is available on the relationship between the severity of SAS and circadian BP changes in SAS patients without HTN. This study investigated whether SAS patients without HTN would have different BP courses in the severity of SAS. Seventy-four consecutive outpatients without HTN [systolic BP (BPs) at clinic <140mmHg and/or diastolic BP (BPd) at clinic <90mmHg], who received no antihypertensives, underwent overnight polysomnography (PSG) and ABPM. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was calculated from the PSG results; patients were stratified into the following 4 groups based on their AHI: non-SAS, mild-, moderate-, or severe-SAS. The diurnal BPs and BPd showed no differences in the severity of SAS; however, the sleep BPs, lowest BPs, and pre-awake BPs were significantly higher in the severe-SAS group than the non-SAS group (p=0.02, p=0.04, and p=0.006, respectively). The sleep BPd and pre-awake BPd were significantly higher in the severe-SAS than the non-SAS (p=0.01 and p=0.0003, respectively) and mild-SAS (p=0.01 and p=0.008, respectively) groups. The results of this study suggested that SAS affected nocturnal BP elevation even in SAS patients without HTN. The diurnal BP showed no difference in the severity of SAS; however, the severe-SAS group revealed significant nocturnal BP elevation.Journal of Cardiology 01/2010; 55(1):92-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jjcc.2009.10.002 · 2.57 Impact Factor