Future directions in cardiovascular pharmacology: examples from the Renin-Angiotensin system.
ABSTRACT Advances in cardiovascular pharmacological research will be necessary to treat effectively the increasingly complex patient with disorders in multiple control systems. The constituents of the renin-angiotensin system, as a result of the widespread effects of angiotensin II to increase inflammation and promote oxidative stress, remain prime targets for overall improvements in cardiovascular health in patients with co-existing metabolic, renal and cardiac dysfunction. Additional research is required to determine whether additional benefits can be achieved with tissue-selective or intracellular blockade of angiotensin II versus targeting overexpression of Ang-(1-7) and the enzymes that promote its formation. Newly identified components including renin receptors and intermediates in the processing of angiotensinogen provide potential future molecular targets that might allow improved clinical benefits.