Rapamycin-induced Gln3 dephosphorylation is insufficient for nuclear localization: Sit4 and PP2A phosphatases are regulated and function differently.
ABSTRACT Gln3, the major activator of nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR)-sensitive transcription, is often used as an assay of Tor pathway regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gln3 is cytoplasmic in cells cultured with repressive nitrogen sources (Gln) and nuclear with derepressive ones (Pro) or after treating Gln-grown cells with the Tor inhibitor, rapamycin (Rap). In Raptreated or Pro-grown cells, Sit4 is posited to dephosphorylate Gln3, which then dissociates from a Gln3-Ure2 complex and enters the nucleus. However, in contrast with this view, Sit4-dependent Gln3 dephosphorylation is greater in Gln than Pro. Investigating this paradox, we show that PP2A (another Tor pathway phosphatase)-dependent Gln3 dephosphorylation is regulated oppositely to that of Sit4, being greatest in Pro- and least in Gln-grown cells. It thus parallels nuclear Gln3 localization and NCR-sensitive transcription. However, because PP2A is not required for nuclear Gln3 localization in Pro, PP2A-dependent Gln3 dephosphorylation and nuclear localization are likely parallel responses to derepressive nitrogen sources. In contrast, Rap-induced nuclear Gln3 localization absolutely requires all four PP2A components (Pph21/22, Tpd3, Cdc55, and Rts1). In pph21Delta22Delta, tpd3Delta, or cdc55Delta cells, however, Gln3 is dephosphorylated to the same level as in Rap-treated wild-type cells, indicating Rap-induced Gln3 dephosphorylation is insufficient to achieve nuclear localization. Finally, PP2A-dependent Gln3 dephosphorylation parallels conditions where Gln3 is mostly nuclear, while Sit4-dependent and Rap-induced dephosphorylation parallels those where Gln3 is mostly cytoplasmic, suggesting the effects of these phosphatases on Gln3 may occur in different cellular compartments.
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ABSTRACT: A leucine, leucyl-tRNA synthetase-dependent pathway activates TorC1 kinase and its downstream stimulation of protein synthesis, a major nitrogen consumer. We previously demonstrated, however, that control of Gln3, a transcription activator of catabolic genes whose products generate the nitrogenous precursors for protein synthesis, isn't subject to leucine-dependent TorC1 activation. This led us to conclude that excess nitrogen-dependent down regulation of Gln3 occurs via a second mechanism that is independent of leucine-dependent TorC1 activation. A major site of Gln3 and Gat1 (another GATA binding transcription activator) control occurs at their access to the nucleus. In excess nitrogen, Gln3/Gat1 are sequestered in the cytoplasm in a Ure2-dependent manner. They become nuclear and activate transcription when nitrogen becomes limiting. Long-term nitrogen starvation and treating cells with the glutamine synthetase inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (Msx) also elicit nuclear Gln3 localization. The sensitivity of Gln3 localization to glutamine and inhibition of glutamine synthesis prompted us to investigate the effects of a glutamine tRNA mutation (sup70-65) on nitrogen-responsive control of Gln3 and Gat1. We found that nuclear Gln3 localization elicited by short- and long-term nitrogen starvation, growth in a poor, derepressive medium, Msx or rapamycin treatment or in a ure2Δ is abolished in a sup70-65 mutant. However, nuclear Gat1 localization, which also exhibits a glutamine tRNACUG requirement for its response to short-term nitrogen starvation, growth in proline medium or a ure2Δ, does not require tRNACUG for its response to rapamycin. Also in contrast with Gln3, Gat1 localization does not respond to long-term nitrogen starvation. These observations demonstrate the existence of a specific nitrogen-responsive component participating in the control of Gln3/Gat1 localization and their downstream production of nitrogenous precursors. This component is highly sensitive to the function of the rare glutamine tRNACUG, which cannot be replaced by the predominant glutamine tRNACAA. Our observations also demonstrate distinct mechanistic differences between the responses of Gln3 and Gat1 to rapamycin inhibition of TorC1 and nitrogen starvation. Copyright © 2014, The Genetics Society of America.Genetics 12/2014; 199(2). DOI:10.1534/genetics.114.173831 · 4.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) is the regulatory pathway through which Saccharomyces cerevisiae responds to the available nitrogen status and selectively utilizes rich nitrogen sources in preference to poor ones. Expression of NCR-sensitive genes is mediated by two transcription activators, Gln3 and Gat1, in response to provision of a poorly used nitrogen source or following treatment with the TORC1 inhibitor, rapamycin. During nitrogen excess, the transcription activators are sequestered in the cytoplasm in a Ure2-dependent fashion. Here, we show that Vps components are required for Gln3 localization and function in response to rapamycin treatment when cells are grown in defined yeast nitrogen base but not in complex yeast peptone dextrose medium. On the other hand, Gat1 function was altered in vps mutants in all conditions tested. A significant fraction of Gat1, like Gln3, is associated with light intracellular membranes. Further, our results are consistent with the possibility that Ure2 might function downstream of the Vps components during the control of GATA factor-mediated gene expression. These observations demonstrate distinct media-dependent requirements of vesicular trafficking components for wild-type responses of GATA factor localization and function. As a result, the current model describing participation of Vps system components in events associated with translocation of Gln3 into the nucleus following rapamycin treatment or growth in nitrogen-poor medium requires modification.06/2014; 3(3). DOI:10.1002/mbo3.168
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ABSTRACT: The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Siw14, a tyrosine phosphatase involved in the response to caffeine, participates in regulation of the phosphorylation and intracellular localization of Gln3, a GATA transcriptional activator of Nitrogen Catabolite Repression (NCR)-sensitive genes. In Δsiw14 cells, the phosphorylation level of Gln3 is decreased and the nuclear localization of Gln3 is stimulated by caffeine. However, the mechanism by which Siw14 controls the localization and function of Gln3 remains unclear, although the nuclear localization of Gln3 is known to be induced by activation of the type 2A phosphatases (PP2As) Pph21 and Pph22, and the type 2A-related phosphatase Sit4. In this study, we show that the increased nuclear localization of Gln3 in response to caffeine caused by disruption of the SIW14 gene is dependent on the Sit4 and PP2A phosphatases. We also show that decreased phosphorylation of Gln3 caused by disruption of the SIW14 gene is completely suppressed by deletion of both PPH21 and PPH22, but only partially suppressed by deletion of SIT4. Taking these results together, we conclude that Siw14 functions upstream of Pph21 and Pph22 as an inhibitor of the phosphorylation and localization of Gln3, and that Sit4 acts independently of Siw14.Journal of Biochemistry 10/2014; 157(1). DOI:10.1093/jb/mvu055 · 3.07 Impact Factor