Raltegravir: The First HIV Integrase Inhibitor
ABSTRACT The availability of new classes of antiretroviral drugs has made it possible for HIV-infected individuals who are highly treatment experienced to achieve the goals of immunologic recovery and virologic suppression. Raltegravir is the first integrase inhibitor to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in antiretroviral treatment- experienced adult patients with viral resistance.
This article reviews the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, tolerability, resistance profile, drug interactions, and dosing and administration of raltegravir.
Searches of MEDLINE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts from 1964 to July 2008 were conducted using the terms integrase, raltegravir, and MK-0518. Relevant information was extracted from the identified clinical trials and review articles. Abstracts from the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (1998-2008); Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (1999-2007); International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention (2001-2007); and European AIDS Conference (2001-2007) were also searched.
Raltegravir blocks HIV replication by inhibiting essential strand-transfer activities of integrase. Raltegravir is rapidly absorbed, with a median T(max) of approximately 4 hours in the fasting state. No dose adjustment is recommended in patients with moderate renal or hepatic insufficiency, and raltegravir may be taken without regard to meals. In Phase II studies in treatment-naive patients, raltegravir had efficacy similar to that of standard initial therapies. In 2 interrelated Phase III clinical studies in treatment-experienced patients with drug-resistant disease, the addition of raltegravir to an optimized background regimen significantly lowered HIV RNA compared with optimized background treatment alone (62.1% vs 32.9%, respectively; P < 0.001). Raltegravir was generally well tolerated. The most common adverse effects reported in Phase II/III trials in treatment-experienced patients were diarrhea (16.6%), nausea (9.9%), and headache (9.7%). Cytochrome P450-related drug interactions are not expected, as raltegravir is not a CYP substrate, inducer, or inhibitor. However, to prevent failure of raltegravir, the drug should not be coadministered with rifampin.
Raltegravir is a potent and generally well tolerated antiretroviral agent that may play an important role in the treatment of patients harboring resistance to other antiretrovirals.
SourceAvailable from: Jeroen van den Heuvel[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Therapeutic blood plasma concentrations of anti-malarial drugs are essential for successful treatment. Pharmacokinetics of pharmaceutical compounds are dependent of adsorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. ATP binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins are particularly involved in drug deposition, as they are located at membranes of many uptake and excretory organs and at protective barriers, where they export endogenous and xenobiotic compounds, including pharmaceuticals. In this study, a panel of well-established anti-malarial drugs which may affect drug plasma concentrations was tested for interactions with human ABC transport proteins.Malaria Journal 09/2014; 13(1):359. DOI:10.1186/1475-2875-13-359 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The current therapy for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a combination of anti-HIV drugs targeting multiple steps of virus replication. The drugs for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment include reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, fusion inhibitors, co-receptor inhibitor and the newly added integrase inhibitors. Raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir are the three Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved integrase strand transfer inhibitors for clinical treatment of HIV infection. The addition of these integrase inhibitors benefits a lot to HIV infected patients. Although it is only seven years from the first integrase inhibitor, which was approved by FDA to now, multiple drug resistant HIV strains have emerged in clinical treatment. Most of the drug resistant virus strains are against raltegravir. Some are cross-resistant to elvitegravir. Dolutegravir is effective for suppression of the current drug resistant viruses. A number of clinical trials have been performed on the three integrase inhibitors. In this study, the application of the three integrase inhibitors in clinical treatment and the findings of drug resistance to integrase inhibitors are summarized.Biomedecine [?] Pharmacotherapy 10/2014; 68(8). DOI:10.1016/j.biopha.2014.09.013 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A selective and rapid high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the quantification of raltegravir using raltegravir-d3 as an internal standard (IS). The analyte and IS were extracted with methylene chloride and n-hexane solvent mixture from 100 µL human plasma. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Chromolith RP-18e endcapped C18 (100 mm × 4.6 mm) column in a run time of 2.0 min. Quantitation was performed in the negative ionization mode using the transitions of m/z 443.1→316.1 for raltegravir and m/z 446.1 →319.0 for IS. The linearity of the method was established in the concentration range of 2.0–6000 ng/mL. The mean extraction recovery for raltegravir and IS was 92.6% and 91.8% respectively and the IS-normalized matrix factors for raltegravir ranged from 0.992 to 0.999. The application of this method was demonstrated by a bioequivalence study with 18 healthy subjects.10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jpha.2014.10.002