Article

Seasonality and outbreak of a predominant Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 clone from The Gambia: Expansion of ST217 hypervirulent clonal complex in West Africa

Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia.
BMC Microbiology (Impact Factor: 2.98). 11/2008; 8:198. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-8-198
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 causes > 20% of invasive disease, among all age groups combined, in The Gambia. In contrast, it is rarely detected in carriage studies. This study compares the molecular epidemiology of S. pneumoniae serotype 1 causing invasive disease in The Gambia between 1996 and 2005 to those carried in the nasopharynx between 2004 and 2006.
A total of 127 invasive and 36 nasopharyngeal carriage serotype 1 isolates were recovered from individuals of all age groups and were analyzed by serotyping, antibiotic susceptibility testing and MLST. MLST analysis revealed 23 different sequence types (STs), 18 of which were novel. The most prevalent clone among the 163 isolates was ST618 (70.5%), followed by ST3575 (7.4%), ST2084 (2.5%) and ST612 (2.5%). A single ST (ST618), previously shown to belong to the ST217 hypervirulent clonal complex, was frequent among carriage (61.1%) and invasive (72.7%) serotype 1 isolates. ST618 causing both paediatric and adult disease peaked annually in the hot dry season and caused outbreak in 1997 and 2002.
For over a decade, isolates of ST618 have been the dominant lineage among serotype 1 carriage and disease isolates circulating in the Gambia. This lineage shows similar epidemiological features to those of the meningococcus in the African meningitis belt being able to cause outbreaks of disease.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Uzochukwu Egere, Jun 24, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
133 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 is one of the leading causes of invasive pneumococcal disease. However, this invasive serotype is hardly found in nasopharyngeal asymptomatic carriage and therefore large epidemiological studies are needed to assess the dynamics of serotype 1 infection. Within the context of a large cluster randomized trial conducted in rural Gambia to assess the impact of PCV-7 vaccination on nasopharyngeal carriage, we present an ancillary analysis describing the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococcal serotype 1 and temporal changes of its more frequent genotypes. Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) were collected before PCV-7 vaccination (December 2003-May 2004) and up to 30 months after PCV-7 vaccination. The post-vaccination time was divided in three periods to ensure an equal distribution of the number of samples: (1) July 2006-March 2007, (2) April 2007-March 2008 and (3) April 2008-Feb 2009. S. pneumoniae serotype 1 were genotyped by MLST. Serotype 1 was recovered from 87 (0.71%) of 12,319 NPS samples collected. In the pre-vaccination period, prevalence of serotype 1 was 0.47% in both study arms. In the post-vaccination periods, prevalence in the fully vaccinated villages ranged between 0.08% in period 1 and 0.165% in period 2, while prevalence in partly vaccinated villages was between 0.17% in period 3 and 1.34% in period 2. Overall, four different genotypes were obtained, with ST3081 the most prevalent (60.71%), followed by ST618 (29.76%). ST3081 was found only in post-vaccination period 2 and 3, while ST618 had disappeared in post-vaccination period 3. Distribution of these major genotypes was similar in both study arms. Emergence of ST3081 and concomitant disappearance of ST618 may suggest a change in the molecular epidemiology of pneumococcal serotype 1 in this region. This change is not likely to be associated with the introduction of PCV-7 which lacks serotype 1, as it was observed simultaneously in both study arms. Future population-based epidemiological studies will provide further evidence of substantive changes in the pneumococcal serotype 1 epidemiology and the likely mechanisms.
    01/2015; 3:e903. DOI:10.7717/peerj.903
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is a serious problem worldwide and the case fatality rate remains high. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), to survey the potential coverage of present and future vaccines, and to investigate differences between serotypes and groups of serotypes with regard to manifestation, case fatality rate, age, and other risk factors. Isolates from 244 consecutive patients with IPD were collected at the Christian Medical College, Vellore, India between January 2007 and June 2011, and clinical data were obtained retrospectively. Clinical characteristics were analyzed both for individual serotypes and for those grouped as "invasive", "pediatric", or "vaccine" serotypes. The serotype coverage for the pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCV) PCV7, PCV10, PCV13, PCV15, and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) PPV23 was 29%, 53%, 64%, 66%, and 73%, respectively. The proportion of IPD caused by vaccine types was lower than pre-vaccination studies from other parts of the world. In adults, serotype 1 was mainly isolated from previously healthy patients without risk factors for IPD. This serotype caused more pneumonia and less meningitis than other serotypes, as was also noted for the "invasive" serotypes (1, 5, and 7 F). The most common pneumococcal serotypes in this study behaved in similar ways to those in countries where the PCV has been introduced. Also, the most common serotypes in this study are included in the new PCVs. Therefore, a national program of childhood immunization with PCV10/13 in India is likely to be successful.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 11/2013; 13(1):532. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-13-532 · 2.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Molecular typing of the pneumococcus has played a crucial role in understanding the epidemiology of the organism. However, most of what is known about molecular epidemiology of the pneumococcus pertains to the developed world. The brunt of pneumococcal infections is borne by sub-Saharan African countries, which makes epidemiological monitoring of the pneumococcus essential in this region of the world. This review paper focuses on molecular typing of the pneumococcus and what is known about epidemiology of the organism in sub-Saharan Africa based on the various typing methods. Several molecular typing methods are available for typing the pneumococcus and the major ones include multilocus sequence typing (MLST), multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), serotyping and DNA fingerprinting methods such as pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Currently, MLST is the most suitable method for typing the pneumococcus. The pneumococcal population structure in sub-Saharan Africa appears to be quite different from that of the developed world, and pneumococcal serotype 1 related to the ST 618 clone and clones of the ST 217 clonal complex are responsible for outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa.
    Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 03/2013; 3:12. DOI:10.3389/fcimb.2013.00012 · 2.62 Impact Factor