Clinical and coronary angiographic characteristics of patients with coronary slow flow
ABSTRACT The coronary slow flow phenomenon is an angiographic finding characterized by delayed distal vessel opacification in the absence of significant epicardial coronary disease, and is an important clinical entity because it may be the cause of angina at rest or during exercise, acute myocardial infarction, and hypertension. The pathophysiological mechanisms of the coronary slow flow phenomenon remain undetermined. Endothelial dysfunction and microvascular dysfunction have been suggested as underlying mechanisms. The slow coronary flow (SCF) phenomenon is considered to be a form of early phase atherosclerosis in some studies.A study of patients with SCF was conducted to determine the associated clinical and angiographic properties.
Eighty-five patients with SCF and 85 control subjects without SCF were included in the study. All subjects had angiographically proven normal coronary arteries. Coronary flow patterns of the latter were determined by the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction frame count method. Clinical and angiographic characteristics of the patients were obtained from case records.
Patients with SCF had higher total cholesterol, and LDL-C levels. Body mass index (BMI) was higher and metabolic syndrome was more frequent in SCF compared to control subjects. Patients with SCF were more symptomatic than the control group, and hospital admissions were also more frequent. BMI correlated statistically significantly, but weakly, with mean TIMI frame count for the 3 coronary arteries.
In this study we demonstrated that patients with SCF had a significant metabolic disarrangement compared to the control group. Patients with SCF have a high incidence of metabolic syndrome which leads to development of coronary microvascular dysfunction via several mechanisms.
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ABSTRACT: Coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) is an angiographic finding characterized by delayed distal vessel opacification without any significant epicardial coronary artery disease. Several studies have suggested that CSFP might be a form of atherosclerosis. The present study was aimed to investigate the relationship between CSFP and coronary artery calcification, which is one of the clear-cut indicators of coronary atherosclerotic plaque, by using computerized tomography. Fifty-five patients were included in the study. The coronary arteries of all patients were shown by angiography to be normal. Coronary slow flow (CSF) patterns were evaluated by the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction frame count (TFC) method. Patients with normal coronary arteries and CSF were allocated into the CSF group, and patients with normal coronary arteries and normal coronary flow were allocated into the control group. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) score was measured in 28 patients with CSF and in 27 controls by 64-slice computerized tomography. The CSF and control groups were similar with respect to age, gender, smoking status, presence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, cholesterol profiles, and Framingham risk scores (p>0.05). The CSF and control groups were not significantly different with respect to CAC score (p>0.05). Sub-group analysis of cardiac risk factors in patients with or without coronary artery calcification revealed that advanced age and low high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were significantly associated with coronary artery calcification. There wasn't any relationship between coronary slow flow and cardiac risk factors or coronary calcium scores. In the present study, no association was found between the CSFP and calcified atherosclerosis. Additionally, it was demonstrated that, among the cardiac risk factors, advanced age and low HDL levels were associated with coronary artery calcification.Perfusion 03/2010; 25(2):97-102. DOI:10.1177/0267659110369728 · 1.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) is an important, angiographic entity characterized by delayed progression of the contrast medium injected into the coronary tree. Since definition of this phenomenon in 1972, there has not been any clear-cut etiology. Original data often focused on histological or pathological changes in coronary artery itself. It was confirmed that small vessel structural defect as well as an underlying residual microvascular resistance abnormality coexists in the coronary microcirculation. Early atherosclerosis was also detected in epicardial coronary arteries by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Taken together, it can be suggested that a combination of morphological and functional abnormalities in small vessels and epicardial coronary arteries contributes to the pathogenesis of CSFP. CSFP may be defined as a local disease confined to coronary arteries. However, another feature of CSFP is its frequent occurrence in association with more widespread vascular abnormalities. Reduced endothelial function is implicated in CSFP as measured by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery, suggesting that endothelial dysfunction appears to be a generalized process affecting both coronary and peripheral vasculature. In addition, several studies have now demonstrated that carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is significantly increased in patients with CSFP and there was a significant correlation between coronary intima-media thickness and carotid IMT. Therefore, we hypothesize that CSFP is not an isolated finding but may be part of a systemic vascular disturbance. CSFP is not an infrequently detected finding typically observed in patients presenting with an acute coronary syndrome, usually unstable angina. The subsequent clinical course is characterized by high frequency of relapsing chest pain resulting in considerable impairment in quality of life. Accordingly, further experimental investigations and clinical studies are warranted to shed light into the pathogenesis as well as therapeutics of CSFP.Medical Hypotheses 04/2010; 75(3):334-7. DOI:10.1016/j.mehy.2010.03.016 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Percutaneous cardioscopy, using high-resolution fiberoptic imaging, enables direct visualization of the cardiac interior, thereby enabling macroscopic pathological diagnosis. Percutaneous cardioscopy has demonstrated that the endocardial surface exhibits various colors characteristic of different heart diseases. This imaging modality can now be used for evaluation of the severity of myocardial ischemia, and staging of myocarditis. Myocardial blood flow recovery induced by vasodilating agents or percutaneous coronary interventions can be clearly visualized. Morphological and functional changes in the cardiac valves can also be evaluated. Cardioscope-guided endomyocardial biopsy enables pin-point biopsy of the diseased myocardium. Recently, dye-image cardioscopy and fluorescence cardioscopy were developed for evaluation of the subendocardial microcirculation. Cardioscope-guided intracardiac therapies such as myotomy, myectomy, valvulotomy, and transendocardial angiogenic and myogenic therapy have been trialed using animal models in anticipation of future clinical applications. Percutaneous cardioscopy has the potential to contribute to our understanding of heart disease, and to assist in guidance for intracardiac therapies.Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports 08/2011; 4(4):317-327. DOI:10.1007/s12410-011-9092-6