Snyder KR, Earl JE, O'Connor KM, Ebersole KT. Resistance training is accompanied by increases in hip strength and changes in lower extremity biomechanics during running

University of Northern Iowa, Waterloo, IW, USA.
Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon) (Impact Factor: 1.97). 11/2008; 24(1):26-34. DOI: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2008.09.009
Source: PubMed


Movement and muscle activity of the hip have been shown to affect movement of the lower extremity, and been related to injury. The purpose of this study was to determine if increased hip strength affects lower extremity mechanics during running.
Within subject, repeated measures design. Fifteen healthy women volunteered. Hip abduction and external rotation strength were measured using a hand-held dynamometer. Three-dimensional biomechanical data of the lower extremity were collected during running using a high-speed motion capture system. Measurements were made before, at the mid-point, and after a 6-week strengthening program using closed-chain hip rotation exercises. Joint range of motion (rearfoot eversion, knee abduction, hip adduction, and internal rotation), eversion velocity, eversion angle at heel strike, and peak joint moments (rearfoot inversion, knee abduction, hip abduction, and external rotation) were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (P <or= 0.05). The independent variable was time (pre-, week 3, and week 6). A separate analysis of variance was conducted with the dependent variables of peak hip abduction and external rotation strength.
Hip abduction (P=0.009) and external rotation strength (P<0.0005) increased by 13% and 23%, respectively. Eversion range of motion decreased (P=0.05), hip adduction range of motion increased (P=0.05), and a trend of decreased hip internal rotation range of motion (P=0.08) were found. Rearfoot inversion moment (P=0.02) and knee abduction moment (P=0.05) decreased by 57% and 10%, respectively.
The hip abductors and external rotators were strengthened, leading to an alteration of lower extremity joint loading which may reduce injury risk. These exercises could be used in the rehabilitation, or prevention, of lower extremity injuries.

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    • "Also, peak hip adduction angle during running (17.4) was similar to the 17.88 reported by Noehren and colleagues [6]. Lastly, the excursion values for hip adduction during running (7.98) also closely matched the 8.18 found by Snyder et al. [25] Thus our sample was representative of other previously published work. This study is not without limitations. "
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    ABSTRACT: Excessive hip adduction has been associated with a number of lower extremity overuse running injuries. The excessive motion has been suggested to be the result of reduced strength of the hip abductor musculature. Hip anatomical alignment has been postulated to influence hip abduction (HABD) strength and thus may impact hip adduction during running. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between hip anatomy, HABD strength, and frontal plane kinematics during running. Peak isometric HABD strength, 3D lower extremity kinematics during running, femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA), and pelvis width-femur length (PW-FL) ratio were recorded for 25 female subjects. Pearson correlations (p<0.05) were performed between variables. A fair relationship was observed between femoral NSA and HABD strength (r=-0.47, p=0.02) where an increased NSA was associated with reduced HABD strength. No relationship was observed between HABD strength and hip adduction during running. None of the anatomical measurements, NSA or PW-FL, were associated with hip adduction during running. Deviations in the femoral NSA have a limited ability to influence peak isometric hip abduction strength or frontal plane hip kinematics during running. Hip abduction strength does also not appear to be linked with changes in hip kinematics. These findings in healthy individuals question whether excessive hip adduction typically seen in female runners with overuse injuries is caused by deviations in hip abduction strength or anatomical structure.
    Gait & posture 08/2015; 42(4). DOI:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2015.07.064 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    • "These results support the use of hip strengthening exercises to improve function in women with PFPS. The strengthening of the hip muscles, mainly targeting the extensors, abductors, and external rotators, is widely used for the correction of dynamic knee valgus, decreased peak adduction, and internal rotation of the hip (Herman et al., 2009; Snyder et al., 2009; Greska et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between knee pain severity and function with the frontal plane projection angle (FPPA) and trunk and hip peak torque (PT) in women with patellofemoral pain (PFPS). Twenty-two women with PFPS were assessed. Knee pain severity (KPS) was assessed with an 11-point visual analog scale and function with an Anterior Knee Pain Scale. The FPPA was recorded with a digital camera. PT of extensors, abductors, and the lateral rotators of hip and lateral core stability were measured with a handheld dynamometer. FPPA was the only predictor for the KPS. Regarding predictors of function, PT of lateral core stability and the extensor and abductor of the hip explained 41.4% of the function. Increase in FPPA was associated with greater KPS, and the lowest PT of lateral core stability, hip abductors, and extensors was associated with lower function in women with PFPS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of bodywork and movement therapies 07/2015; 19(3):558-64. DOI:10.1016/j.jbmt.2015.01.004
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    • "Since prolonged walking causes hip pain in FAI patients [17], it is important how FAI-related changes in hip and pelvic motion [15] affect foot biomechanics during gait. Previous research has shown the relationship between hip and rearfoot motion [18] [19]. To our best knowledge, there is no study that has investigated plantar pressure distribution during walking in a FAI sample. "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is accompanied by increased hip alpha angles, in particular in athletes with high impact sports. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to investigate the dynamic function of the foot during walking in male soccer players with increased versus normal alpha angles. METHODS: Plantar pressures of 20 injury-free male soccer players were recorded during barefoot walking at 1.6 m/s. Ten subjects had bilaterally increased (>55 degrees) (IA) and ten subjects normal (<50 degrees) hip alpha angles (NA). Both standing and kicking leg were analyzed. RESULTS: Compared to NA, IA showed lower force-time-integrals (-23%; p < 0.01), pressure-time-integrals (-29%; p < 0.001) and relative loads (p < 0.05) under the heel. In IA contact area of the hallux is about 13% (p < 0.05) reduced. In IA relative loads are increased under the lateral midfoot (p < 0.05) and the second toe (p < 0.05). Higher loading of the lateral midfoot is also reflected in the increased force-time integral (+33%; p < 0.001). No differences between legs and no interactions, indicating a specifity in kicking or standing leg, are found. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to NA, soccer players with IA show a forward shifting of the center of pressure which indicates a compensatory mechanism of the foot during walking.
    Technology and health care: official journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine 11/2014; 23(1). DOI:10.3233/THC-140877 · 0.70 Impact Factor
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