Dietary carbohydrate intake is associated with cardiovascular disease risk in Korean: Analysis of the third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III)
ABSTRACT It is widely recognized that dietary factors play important roles in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We evaluated the association between carbohydrate intake and CVD risk factors, using data from the third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III).
A nationally representative sample of Korean adults (1536 men, 2235 women), aged 20 to 69 years, was divided into three groups according to carbohydrate intake (% of energy), based on the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI, 55-70% of energy) for Koreans. Then, we examined whether excessive carbohydrate intake was related to CVD risk factors.
Mean carbohydrate intake (% of energy) was 72.8% (321 g/day), above the DRI for Korean adults (55-70%). A high carbohydrate intake (>70% of energy) was associated with higher BMI, blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol levels in women. After adjusting for covariates, such as age, energy intake, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and physical activity, high carbohydrate intakes (>70% of energy) were significantly associated with diabetes mellitus and low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) in women. In men, however, only total cholesterol was inversely associated with high carbohydrate intake.
Higher carbohydrate intakes than the DRI for Koreans were significantly associated with diabetes mellitus and low HDL-C levels in women. These results suggest that improvement of dietary patterns may be an important approach to the prevention of CVD in Korean women.
SourceAvailable from: SuJin Song
Dataset: bjn 2015
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ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Studies on determinants of bone mineral density (BMD) among Asian middle-aged and older men are very limited. The aim of this study was to investigate general determinants and dietary factors influencing BMD in Korean middle-aged and older men. Methods: This study was conducted using data from the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 2,305 male subjects aged 50-79 years were included. Whole-body, total femur, femoral neck, and lumbar spine BMDs were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was estimated by 24-hour dietary recall. A food frequency questionnaire for 63 food items was also administered. Results: Proportions of osteoporosis at the total femur, femoral neck, and lumbar spine were 0.7, 3.3 and 7.0%, respectively. Age, height, weight, body mass index, fat mass, lean body mass, waist circumference, serum vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and exercise were related to BMD, but the relationships were site specific. Diet quality and intake of vegetables, fruits, and calcium were associated with BMD. Conclusions: These results suggest that a high-quality diet, an adequate intake of fruits, vegetables, and calcium, as well as exercise, high serum vitamin D and weight maintenance might be determinants of BMD among middle-aged and older Asian men. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 05/2014; 64(1):50-59. DOI:10.1159/000362425 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the present study, we examined the associations of total carbohydrate intake, dietary glycaemic load (DGL) and white rice intake with metabolic syndrome risk factors by sex in Korean adolescents. For the present cross-sectional study, data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-9) were used. A total of 2209 adolescents (n 1164 boys and n 1045 girls) aged 10-18 years with complete anthropometric, biochemical and dietary intake data were included in the study. Dietary intake data were obtained using the 24 h recall method, and total carbohydrate intake, DGL and white rice intake were divided into quartiles by sex. The metabolic syndrome and its risk factors were defined using the International Diabetes Federation criteria for children and adolescents. Fasting insulin levels and insulin resistance were included as the metabolic syndrome risk factors. All statistical analyses considered the complex sampling design effect and appropriate sampling weights. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to estimate means with their standard errors of the mean for the metabolic syndrome risk factors across the quartiles of total carbohydrate intake, DGL and white rice intake. While high DGL was significantly associated with increased fasting glucose levels in boys, high total carbohydrate intake, DGL and white rice intake were consistently associated with reduced HDL-cholesterol levels in girls. High white rice intake was significantly associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in girls but not in boys. Optimising dietary carbohydrate intake with respect to the source or amount is fundamental to preventing and managing metabolic diseases in Asian adolescents.British Journal Of Nutrition 01/2015; 113(03):1-9. DOI:10.1017/S0007114514003845 · 3.34 Impact Factor