A comparison of primary and passaged chondrocytes for use in engineering the temporomandibular joint

Department of Bioengineering: MS-142, Rice University, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251, USA.
Archives of oral biology (Impact Factor: 1.74). 12/2008; 54(2):138-45. DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2008.09.018
Source: PubMed


This study examines the tissue engineering potential of passaged (P3) and primary (P0) articular chondrocytes (ACs) and costal chondrocytes (CCs) from skeletally mature goats for use in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ).
These four cell types were assembled into scaffoldless tissue engineered constructs and cultured for 4 wks. The constructs were then tested for cell, collagen, and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content with biochemical assays, and collagen types I and II with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Constructs were also tested under tension and compression to determine biomechanical properties.
Both primary and passaged CC constructs had greater GAG/wet weight than AC constructs. Primary AC constructs had significantly less total collagen and contained no collagen type I. AC P3 constructs had the largest collagen I/collagen II ratio, which was also greater in passaged CC constructs relative to primary groups. Primary AC constructs were not mechanically testable, whereas passaged AC and CC constructs had significantly greater tensile properties than primary CC constructs.
Primary CCs are considerably better than primary ACs and have potential use in tissue engineering when larger quantities of collagen type II are desired. The poor performance of the ACs, in this study, which contradicts the results seen with previous studies using immature bovine ACs, may thus be attributed to the animals' maturity. However, CC P3 cells appear particularly well suited for tissue engineering fibrocartilage of the TMJ due to the high quantity of collagen and GAG, and tensile and compressive mechanical properties.

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Available from: Kyriacos Athanasiou, Jan 14, 2014
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    • "In previous study of TMJ disc engineering, the cells were harvested from the disc [3, 5, 6, 14] or from hyaline cartilage [15, 16]. However, the drawbacks of using fibrochondrocyte/chondrocyte including difficult cell harvesting, injury to donor site, and cell dedifferentiation among in vitro expansion hindered their utility in cartilage engineering [7, 17, 18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: TMJ disc related diseases are difficult to be cured due to the poor repair ability of the disc. TMJ-SDSCs were ideal cell sources for cartilage tissue engineering which have been widely used in hyaline cartilage regeneration. Fibrin gel has been demonstrated as a potential scaffold for neocartilage formation. The aim of this study was to repair the TMJ disc perforation using fibrin/chitosan hybrid scaffold combined with TMJ-SDSCs. Rat TMJ-SDSCs were cultured on hybrid scaffold or pure chitosan scaffolds. The cell seeding efficiency, distribution, proliferation, and chondrogenic differentiation capacity were investigated. To evaluate the in vivo repair ability of cell/scaffold construct, rat TMJ disc explants were punched with a defect to mimic TMJ disc perforation. Cell seeded scaffolds were inserted into the defect of TMJ disc explants and then were implanted subcutaneously in nude mice for 4 weeks. Results demonstrated that fibrin may improve cell seeding, proliferation, and chondrogenic induction in vitro. The in vivo experiments showed more cartilage ECM deposition in fibrin/chitosan scaffold, which suggested an enhanced reparative ability. This pilot study demonstrated that the regenerative ability of TMJ-SDSCs seeded in fibrin/chitosan scaffold could be applied for repairing TMJ disc perforation.
    04/2014; 2014:454021. DOI:10.1155/2014/454021
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    • "Different models of engineered TMJ disc have been developed by using animal cells and different biomaterials and signaling [16]. In most of these studies, the key importance of an accurate cell viability determination has been established, since only viable cells should be used for TMJ disc tissue engineering [7], [9], [17]. Most current research works focused on TMJ disc regeneration have been developed by using animal cell sources including goat, calf, pig and rabbit [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Temporo-mandibular joint disc disorders are highly prevalent in adult populations. Autologous chondrocyte implantation is a well-established method for the treatment of several chondral defects. However, very few studies have been carried out using human fibrous chondrocytes from the temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ). One of the main drawbacks associated to chondrocyte cell culture is the possibility that chondrocyte cells kept in culture tend to de-differentiate and to lose cell viability under in in-vitro conditions. In this work, we have isolated human temporo-mandibular joint fibrochondrocytes (TMJF) from human disc and we have used a highly-sensitive technique to determine cell viability, cell proliferation and gene expression of nine consecutive cell passages to determine the most appropriate cell passage for use in tissue engineering and future clinical use. Our results revealed that the most potentially viable and functional cell passages were P5-P6, in which an adequate equilibrium between cell viability and the capability to synthesize all major extracellular matrix components exists. The combined action of pro-apoptotic (TRAF5, PHLDA1) and anti-apoptotic genes (SON, HTT, FAIM2) may explain the differential cell viability levels that we found in this study. These results suggest that TMJF should be used at P5-P6 for cell therapy protocols.
    PLoS ONE 12/2012; 7(12):e51961. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0051961 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Characterization of the properties of the articulating tissues of the joint is a necessary prequel to understanding the process of pathogenesis as well as tissue-engineering suitable constructs for replacement of damaged joint fibrocartilage. In tissue-engineering approaches for fibrocartilage, goat costal chondrocytes have proven to be a viable cell source for scaffoldless tissue-engineering constructs, due to their production of high quantities of collagen and GAG [13, 14]. These studies show the potential for the goat as a tissue engineering model. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to make a comparison of the compressive properties of the goat temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc to the mandibular condylar cartilage (MCC) and to explore the transversely isotropic biphasic model. Samples taken mediolaterally from three regions of the TMJ disc and MCC were tested in unconfined compression at strain levels ranging from 10% to 50% and then assessed for biochemical content. The results indicated that the TMJ disc exhibits a significantly greater tangent modulus than the MCC from 20% to 50% strain with values ranging from 729 ± 267 to 2413 ± 406 kPa and 363 ± 169 to 1677 ± 538 kPa, respectively (P < .05). The collagen content of the TMJ disc was significantly greater than the MCC, while the opposite held for the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and DNA content. The results emphasize fundamental differences between the articulating tissues of the TMJ.
    Journal of Dental Biomechanics 06/2011; 2011:212385. DOI:10.4061/2011/212385
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