Genetic variation in phospholipid transfer protein modulates lipoprotein profiles in hyperalphalipoproteinemia.
ABSTRACT We previously demonstrated the role of a phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) gene variation (rs2294213) in determining levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in hypoalphalipoproteinemia (HypoA). We have now explored the role of PLTP in hyperalphalipoproteinemia (HyperA). The human PLTP gene was screened for sequence anomalies by DNA melting in 107 subjects with HyperA. The association with plasma lipoprotein levels was evaluated. We detected 7 sequence variations: 1 previously reported variation (rs2294213) and 5 novel mutations including 1 missense mutation (L106F). The PLTP activity was unchanged in the p.L106F mutation. The frequency of the rs2294213 minor allele was markedly increased in the HyperA group (7.0%) in comparison with a control group (4.3%) and the hypoalphalipoproteinemia group (2.2%). Moreover, rs2294213 was strongly associated with HDL-C levels. Linear regression models predict that possession of the rs2294213 minor allele increases HDL-C independent of triglycerides. These findings extend the association of rs2294213 with HDL-C levels into the extremes of the HDL distribution.
Article: Phospholipid transfer protein interacts with and stabilizes ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 and enhances cholesterol efflux from cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Phospholipid lipid transfer protein (PLTP) is ubiquitously expressed in animal tissues and plays multiple roles in lipoprotein metabolism, but the function of peripheral PLTP is still poorly understood. Here we show that one of its possible functions is to transport cholesterol and phospholipids from cells to lipoprotein particles by a process involving PLTP interactions with cellular ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1). When ABCA1 was induced in murine macrophages or ABCA1-transfected baby hamster kidney cells, PLTP gained the ability to promote cholesterol and phospholipid efflux from cells. Although PLTP alone had lipid efflux activity, its maximum activity was observed in the presence of high density lipoprotein particles. Pulsechase studies showed that the interaction of PLTP with ABCA1-expressing cells played a role in promoting lipid efflux. Overexpression of ABCA1 dramatically increased binding of both PLTP and apoA-I to common sites on the cell surface. Both PLTP and apoA-I were covalently cross-linked to ABCA1, each protein blocked cross-linking of the other, and both PLTP and apoA-I stabilized ABCA1 protein. These results are consistent with PLTP and apoA-I binding to ABCA1 at the same or closely related sites. Thus, PLTP mimics apolipoproteins in removing cellular lipids by the ABCA1 pathway, except that PLTP acts more as an intermediary in the transfer of cellular lipids to lipoprotein particles.Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2004; 278(52):52379-85. · 4.77 Impact Factor
Article: The mechanism of the remodeling of high density lipoproteins by phospholipid transfer protein.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) remodels high density lipoproteins (HDL) into large and small particles. It also mediates the dissociation of lipid-poor or lipid-free apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) from HDL. Remodeling is enhanced markedly in triglyceride (TG)-enriched HDL (Rye, K.-A., Jauhiainen, M., Barter, P. J., and Ehnholm. C. (1998) J. Lipid. Res. 39, 613-622). This study defines the mechanism of the remodeling of HDL by PLTP and determines why it is enhanced in TG-enriched HDL. Homogeneous populations of spherical reconstituted HDL (rHDL) containing apoA-I and either cholesteryl esters only (CE-rHDL; diameter 9.3 nm) or CE and TG in their core (TG-rHDL; diameter 9.5 nm) were used. After 24 h of incubation with PLTP, all of the TG-rHDL, but only a proportion of the CE-rHDL, were converted into large (11.3-nm diameter) and small (7.7-nm diameter) particles. Only small particles were formed during the first 6 h of incubation of CE-rHDL with PLTP. The large particles and dissociated apoA-I were apparent after 12 h. In the case of TG-rHDL, small particles appeared after 1 h of incubation, while dissociated apoA-I and large particles were apparent at 3 h. The composition of the large particles indicated that they were derived from a fusion product. Spectroscopic studies indicated that the apoA-I in TG-rHDL was less stable than the apoA-I in CE-rHDL. In conclusion, these results show that (i) PLTP mediates rHDL fusion, (ii) the fusion product rearranges by two independent processes into small and large particles, and (iii) the more rapid remodeling of TG-rHDL by PLTP may be due to the destabilization of apoA-I.Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2001; 276(29):26898-905. · 4.77 Impact Factor