Colonisation with vancomycin- and linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecium in a university hospital: molecular epidemiology and risk factor analysis.
ABSTRACT During a hospital-wide prospective point prevalence survey of faecal carriage and environmental colonisation of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a tertiary care university hospital in Athens (Greece), five clinical and one environmental isolate from a light switch (all in the haematology ward) were identified as vancomycin- and linezolid-resistant vanA-positive Enterococcus faecium (VLRE). The studied isolates exhibited a linezolid minimum inhibitory concentration of 12microg/mL and carried at least one mutated copy of the 23S rRNA gene, as shown by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis to detect the G2576T mutation. The enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene was detected by PCR in all isolates. Molecular typing with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed that the environmental and four of the five clinical isolates were genetically related. None of the colonised patients were previously exposed to linezolid, although heavy linezolid use was noted in the institution. A case-control study was performed to assess risk factors for VLRE colonisation. In univariate analysis, immunodeficiency, underlying haematological malignancy, duration of any antimicrobial treatment before VLRE isolation, and hospitalisation in the haematology ward were pointed out as possible risk factors. A multidisciplinary approach including intensified hand hygiene, patient contact isolation, disinfection of the inanimate environment and antibiotic restriction resulted in early containment of the VLRE colonisation outbreak.
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in the broiler production environment after the avoparcin ban and their epidemiological relationship with human clinical VRE from the same geographical regions in Greece. Caecal contents from broilers (n = 500) from eight livestock farms and faecal samples from poultry slaughterers (n = 50), all collected in two slaughterhouses during 2005-08, were analysed for species and vancomycin resistance gene identification using multiplex PCR. Sixty-three human clinical vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) isolates, obtained during 2006-09, were also examined. Discriminant analysis (DA) was used to establish the relationship of antimicrobial resistance profiles (ARPs) among broiler, poultry slaughterer and human clinical VREF. PFGE was conducted to study the genetic relatedness among VREF from the different sources. A total of 120 VRE were recovered from 113 (22.6%) broiler samples. VREF carrying the vanA gene were predominant, being recovered from 72 (14.4%) samples from five (62.5%) broiler farms. Concerning poultry slaughterers, VREF were recovered from 10 (20%) samples. Susceptibility testing revealed that broiler VREF were consistently resistant to tetracycline, whereas 93.7% of clinical VREF were resistant to ampicillin. Furthermore, 92.1% of clinical VREF compared with 54.4% of broiler VREF were multiresistant (resistant to at least five antimicrobial classes). DA classified broiler and human clinical VREF into their corresponding source with high classification rates (100% and 85.7%, respectively), while the classification rate of poultry slaughterer VREF was relatively low (50%), with 40% of them classified closely to broiler VREF. PFGE patterns were clearly related to the source of the VREF, with broiler isolates being clustered distinctly from all human isolates. A remarkable persistence of VREF was observed in the broiler production environment even >10 years after the avoparcin ban. Human and broiler VREF belonged to clearly unrelated populations, strongly indicating no clonal spread of VREF among the different sources, even between broilers and poultry slaughterers, despite them sharing common ARPs, as also supported by DA.Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 05/2012; 67(8):1811-8. · 5.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We evaluated the efficacy of tigecycline in a rabbit model of experimental endocarditis caused by a linezolid resistant, clinical strain of Enterococcus faecium. Tigecycline-treated animals had a 2.8 log10 cfu/g reduction in microbial counts in excised vegetations compared with controls. Addition of gentamicin caused a further arithmetical reduction in colony counts. Therapeutic effect was sustained five days after completion of treatment, as shown by relapse studies performed in treatment groups.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 04/2013; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to characterize vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) isolates phenotypically and molecularly, and investigate associations between the virulence factors enterococcal surface protein (esp), hyaluronidase (hyl), and collagen adhesin (acm) and colonization/infection. A total of 126 E. faecium [66 VREfm and 60 vancomycin-susceptible (VSEfm)] were collected in West China Hospital. Nine E. faecium isolates (7 VREfm and 2 VSEfm) were selected at random for comparative study in a large region from China. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured by Etest and agar dilution, vancomycin resistance genes (vanA, vanB, and vanC) and virulence genes (esp, acm, and hyl) were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Thirty-four VREfm underwent repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). One linezolid-resistant isolate (MIC = 8 μg/ml) was found; none were tigecycline resistant. All 73 VREfm (28 infective strains and 45 intestinal colonizers) had the vanA gene and VanA phenotype. Positivity for esp, hyl, and acm in VREfm was 79.5, 46.6, and 86.3 %, respectively, which was higher than in VSEfm (54.8, 27.4, and 56.5 %, respectively). Among VSEfm, positivity for acm in isolates from pleural or cerebrospinal fluid (84.6 %) was higher than that from blood (32.4 %). There were 11 rep-PCR types (similarity >95 %) and MLST revealed nine sequence types (STs) among the selected isolates. Most VREfm and all VSEfm belonged to clonal complex 17. A new ST was found, with allele sequence (15, 1, 38, 1, 1, 1, 1). In China, most VREfm seem to belong to the classical nosocomial CC17 clone, and many of them have acquired virulence genes, further strengthening a hospital-adapted type.European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 01/2014; · 3.02 Impact Factor