Perioperative beta blockers in patients having non-cardiac surgery: A meta-analysis

Division of Cardiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 12/2008; 372(9654):1962-76. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61560-3
Source: PubMed


American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines on perioperative assessment recommend perioperative beta blockers for non-cardiac surgery, although results of some clinical trials seem not to support this recommendation. We aimed to critically review the evidence to assess the use of perioperative beta blockers in patients having non-cardiac surgery.
We searched Pubmed and Embase for randomised controlled trials investigating the use of beta blockers in non-cardiac surgery. We extracted data for 30-day all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, heart failure, and myocardial ischaemia, safety outcomes of perioperative bradycardia, hypotension, and bronchospasm.
33 trials included 12 306 patients. beta blockers were not associated with any significant reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, or heart failure, but were associated with a decrease (odds ratio [OR] 0.65, 95% CI 0.54-0.79) in non-fatal myocardial infarction (number needed to treat [NNT] 63) and decrease (OR 0.36, 0.26-0.50) in myocardial ischaemia (NNT 16) at the expense of an increase (OR 2.01, 1.27-3.68) in non-fatal strokes (number needed to harm [NNH] 293). The beneficial effects were driven mainly by trials with high risk of bias. For the safety outcomes, beta blockers were associated with a high risk of perioperative bradycardia requiring treatment (NNH 22), and perioperative hypotension requiring treatment (NNH 17). We recorded no increased risk of bronchospasm.
Evidence does not support the use of beta-blocker therapy for the prevention of perioperative clinical outcomes in patients having non-cardiac surgery. The ACC/AHA guidelines committee should soften their advocacy for this intervention until conclusive evidence is available.

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Available from: Jørn Wetterslev, Oct 01, 2014
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    • "Patients were instructed to withhold their ACEI/ ARB the day of surgery, and these medications were restarted the day after surgery unless the patient was hemodynamically unstable . In accordance with the most recent American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association guidelines, beta-blockers (BB) were continued on the day of surgery, but the dose was not escalated [27]. The administration of calcium channel blockers (CCB), diuretics, or other anti-hypertensive medications was performed at the discretion of the patient's internist or primary care physician. "
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    ABSTRACT: Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibition by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) has been shown to reduce cardiovascular mortality and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) in high-risk surgical patients. However, their effect in spinal surgery has not been explored. Our objective was to determine the effect of RAS inhibitors on postoperative troponin elevation in spinal fusions, and to examine their correlation with hospital stay. We retrospectively analyzed 208 consecutive patients receiving spinal fusions ⩾5 levels between 2007-2010 with a mean follow-up of 1.7years. Inclusion criteria were age ⩾18years, elective fusions for kyphoscoliosis, and semi-elective fusions for tumor or infection. Exclusion criteria were trauma and follow-up <1year. Descriptives, frequencies, and logistic and linear regression were used to analyze troponin elevation (⩾0.04ng/mL), peak troponin level, and hospital stay. The results featured 208 patients with a mean body mass index (BMI) 28.5kg/m(2) who underwent 345 spinal fusions. ACEI/ARB were withheld the day prior to surgery in 121 patients with 11 patients noteworthy for intra-operative electrocardiogram changes, 126 patients with troponin elevation, and 14 MI identified prior to discharge. Multivariate logistic regression identified BMI (p=0.04), estimated blood loss (p=0.015), and preoperative ACEI/ARB (p=0.015, odds ratio=2.7) as significant independent predictors for postoperative troponin elevation. Multivariate linear regression showed preoperative Oswestry Disability Index (p=0.002), unplanned return to operating room (p=0.007), pneumonia prior to hospital discharge (p<0.01), and preoperative ACEI/ARB to be associated with hospital stay. In patients with spinal fusions ⩾5 levels, ACEI/ARB are independently associated with postoperative troponin elevation and increased hospital stay.
    Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 11/2013; 21(7). DOI:10.1016/j.jocn.2013.10.019 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    • "A.Beta-blockers – scientific support according to the studies cited in the guidelines [16-21]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: Cardiac risk in patients undergoing surgery depends on many factors from the patient's cardiovascular history to the surgical procedure itself, with its particularities, the type of anesthesia, fluid exchanges and the supervision of the patient. Therefore, this risk must be carefully considered and it determines the endorsement of perioperative measures with important medical implications. Objective: Perioperative cardiac risk evaluation guidelines were published since 2010 and they represent a highly important assessmnet tool. Emergency surgery requires an adaptation of the guidelines to the actual medical situations in extreme conditions. Methods, Results, Discussion: Analyzing the way the perioperative evaluation itself is conducted is an extremely important tool. Quantifying the clinical application of the guidelines, one can monitor real parameters and find solutions for improving medical care. The current study was conducted on a representative sample of 8326 patients, respecting the recommendation strategies for calculating the surgical risk adapted for the emergency surgery setting. The dominant conclusion is the need to develop a standardized form, summarized for quick and objective assessment of perioperative cardiac risk score. Only a complex medical team could calculate this score while the decisional team leader for the surgical patient remains the surgeon.
    Journal of medicine and life 09/2013; 6(3):310-5.
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    • "and hypotension (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.39–2.65) that required treatment [36]. These data suggest that prophylactic β-blockers should be used with caution. "
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of postoperative atrial fibrillation (PAF) on patient outcomes has prompted intense investigation into the optimal methods for prevention and treatment of this complication. In the prevention of PAF, β-blockers and amiodarone are particularly effective and are recommended by guidelines. However, their use requires caution due to the possibility of drug-related adverse effects. Aside from these risks, perioperative prophylactic treatment with statins seems to be effective for preventing PAF and is associated with a low incidence of adverse effects. PAF can be treated by rhythm control, heart-rate control, and antithrombotic therapy. For the purpose of heart rate control, β-blockers, calcium-channel antagonists, and amiodarone are used. In patients with unstable hemodynamics, cardioversion may be performed for rhythm control. Antithrombotic therapy is used in addition to heart-rate maintenance therapy in cases of PAF >48-h duration or in cases with a history of cerebrovascular thromboembolism. Anticoagulation is the first choice for antithrombotic therapy, and anticoagulation management should focus on maintaining international normalized ratio (INRs) in the 2.0-3.0 range in patients <75 years of age, whereas prothrombin-time INR should be controlled to the 1.6-2.6 range in patients ≥75 years of age. In the future, dabigatran could be used for perioperative management of PAF, because it does not require regular monitoring and has a quick onset of action with short serum half-life. Preventing PAF is an important goal and requires specific perioperative management as well as other approaches. PAF is also associated with lifestyle-related diseases, which emphasizes the ongoing need for appropriate lifestyle management in individual patients.
    Journal of Anesthesia 01/2012; 26(3):429-37. DOI:10.1007/s00540-012-1330-9 · 1.18 Impact Factor
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