Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Bile Duct Invasion
ABSTRACT To clarify the characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with bile duct invasion, we retrospectively analyzed clinical features and surgical outcome of HCC with bile duct invasion (b(+) group, n = 15) compared to those without bile duct invasion (b(-) group, n = 256). In the b(+) group, four patients (27%) showed obstructive jaundice, and a diagnosis of bile duct invasion was obtained preoperatively in seven patients (47%). The levels of serum bilirubin and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 were significantly higher in the b(+) group. Macroscopically, confluent multinodular type and infiltrative type were predominant in the b(+) group (P = 0.002). Microscopically, capsule infiltration (P = 0.040) and intrahepatic metastasis (P = 0.013) were predominant in the b(+) group. Portal vein invasion was associated significantly with the b(+) group (P = 0.004); however, the frequency of hepatic vein invasion was similar (P = 0.096). The median survival after resection was significantly shorter in the b(+) group than in the b(-) group (11.4 vs. 56.1 months, P = 0.002), and eight of 11 intrahepatic recurrences in the b(+) group occurred within 3 months after surgery. HCC with bile duct invasion has an infiltrative nature and a high risk of intrahepatic recurrence, resulting in poor prognosis.
06/2014; 5(2):164-6. DOI:10.1007/s13193-014-0287-6
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to clarify the long-term surgical outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with bile duct tumor thrombus (BDTT) and to identify a therapeutic strategy for this condition. Forty-four patients who underwent hepatectomy for HCC with BDTT or direct invasion involving the first branches of the bile duct or common hepatic duct were enrolled in this study. The overall survival time and time to recurrence were analyzed. The median survival time and the 5-year survival rate were 23.7 months and 31.0 %, respectively. Child-Pugh classification B [hazard ratio (HR) 4.92; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.97-11.65], major vascular invasion (MVI; HR 2.79; 95 % CI 1.14-6.87), and serosal invasion (HR 2.71; 95 % CI 1.19-6.02) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. The median survival times were 12.3 and 72.3 months for the patients with and without MVI, respectively. Among the 41 patients who underwent macroscopic curative resection, the median time to recurrence and the 5-year recurrence rate were 8.6 months and 85.6 %, respectively. MVI was the only independent prognostic factor for recurrence (HR 3.31; 95 % CI 1.55-7.05). The median times to recurrence were 3.7 and 11.6 months for the patients with and without MVI, respectively. Concomitant MVI was a strong prognostic factor in the setting of HCC with BDTT. Extended hepatectomy provided a good prognosis for the patients with BDTT alone without MVI.World Journal of Surgery 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00268-015-2985-9 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with bile duct tumor thrombus (BDTT) is a rare entity, most patients experience tumor recurrence even after curative resection and the prognosis remains dismal. This study aimed to analyze the clinicopathological risk factors for recurrence and poor outcome after surgical treatment of HCC with BDTT.Clinicopathological data of 37 patients with HCC and BDTT who underwent surgical treatment from July 2005 to June 2012 at the authors' hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Prognostic factors and potential risk factors for recurrence were assessed by Cox proportional hazard model and binary logistic regression model, respectively.Among the 37 patients, anatomical and nonanatomical liver resection was performed in 26 and 11 patients, respectively. The resection was considered curative in 19 patients and palliative in 18 patients. Also, 21 cases had tumor recurrence after operation and 7 cases of them were reoperated. Multivariate binary logistic regression model revealed that surgical curability was the only independent risk factor associated with postoperative tumor recurrence (P = 0.034). In addition, postoperative overall survival rates at 1, 2, and 3 years were 64.2%, 38.9%, and 24.3%, respectively. Cox multivariate analysis indicated that surgical curability and tumor recurrence were independent prognostic factors for both overall survival and recurrence-free survival (P < 0.05).Although patients with HCC and BDTT had a relatively high rate of early recurrence after surgery, relatively favorable long-term outcome after curative hepatic resection could be achieved. Therefore, extensive and curative surgical treatment should be recommended when complete resection can be achieved and liver functional reserve is satisfactory.