To clarify the characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with bile duct invasion, we retrospectively analyzed clinical features and surgical outcome of HCC with bile duct invasion (b(+) group, n = 15) compared to those without bile duct invasion (b(-) group, n = 256). In the b(+) group, four patients (27%) showed obstructive jaundice, and a diagnosis of bile duct invasion was obtained preoperatively in seven patients (47%). The levels of serum bilirubin and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 were significantly higher in the b(+) group. Macroscopically, confluent multinodular type and infiltrative type were predominant in the b(+) group (P = 0.002). Microscopically, capsule infiltration (P = 0.040) and intrahepatic metastasis (P = 0.013) were predominant in the b(+) group. Portal vein invasion was associated significantly with the b(+) group (P = 0.004); however, the frequency of hepatic vein invasion was similar (P = 0.096). The median survival after resection was significantly shorter in the b(+) group than in the b(-) group (11.4 vs. 56.1 months, P = 0.002), and eight of 11 intrahepatic recurrences in the b(+) group occurred within 3 months after surgery. HCC with bile duct invasion has an infiltrative nature and a high risk of intrahepatic recurrence, resulting in poor prognosis.
"Obstructive jaundice was diagnosed by the typical sign of biliary tree obstruction (narrowing and dilatation at distal and proximal parts of the biliary tract) on imaging studies and biochemical abnormalities, such as elevated total and direct bilirubin. Mechanisms of obstructive jaundice in HCC were divided into three groups: type 1 obstruction due to an intraluminal obstruction of the bile duct caused by a tumor thrombus or floating tumor fragments; type 2 caused by hemobilia; and type 3 due to extraluminal tumor or nodal compression.1,4 Locations of biliary obstruction were classified according to the extent of tumor thrombi or obstruction. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
Obstructive jaundice in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is uncommon (0.5-13%). Unlike other causes of obstructive jaundice, the role of endoscopic intervention in obstructive jaundice complicated by HCC has not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of obstructive jaundice caused by HCC and predictive factors for successful endoscopic intervention.
Materials and Methods
From 1999 to 2009, 54 patients with HCC who underwent endoscopic intervention to relieve obstructive jaundice were included. We defined endoscopic intervention as a clinical success when the obstructive jaundice was relieved within 4 weeks.
Clinical success was achieved in 23 patients (42.6%). Patients in the clinical success group showed better Child-Pugh liver function (C-P grade A or B/C; 17/6 vs. 8/20), lower total bilirubin levels (8.1±5.3 mg/dL vs. 23.1±10.4 mg/dL) prior to the treatment, and no history of alcohol consumption. The only factor predictive of clinical success by multivariate analysis was low total bilirubin level at the time of endoscopic intervention, regardless of history of alcohol consumption [odds ratio 1.223 (95% confidence interval, 1.071-1.396), p=0.003]. The cut-off value of pre-endoscopic treatment total bilirubin level was 12.8 mg/dL for predicting the clinical prognosis. Median survival after endoscopic intervention in the clinical success group was notably longer than that in the clinical failure group (5.6 months vs. 1.5 months, p≤0.001).
Before endoscopic intervention, liver function, especially total bilirubin level, should be checked to achieve the best clinical outcome. Endoscopic intervention can be helpful to relieve jaundice in well selected patients with HCC.
Yonsei Medical Journal 09/2014; 55(5):1267-72. DOI:10.3349/ymj.2014.55.5.1267 · 1.29 Impact Factor
"A blind spot exists in the BCLC staging when HCC is complicated with biliary invasion , which is not evidently included in either VI or ES. It was found in clinical practice that the prognosis of HCC patients with biliary invasion was very poor after conservative treatment (Ikenaga et al. 2009), particularly in cases with obstructive jaundice (Qin and Tang 2003). In our cohort, 22 of the 33 patients with biliary invasion had "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The BCLC staging classification has been widely endorsed to predict the prognosis of patients with HCC. However, its validity as a means of therapeutic instructions needs to be challenged. This study aimed to evaluate perioperative and long-term outcomes of surgical resection in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging.
This study used a prospectively maintained database consisting of a consecutive series of 511 Chinese patients with advanced HCC who underwent surgical resection in a hepatobiliary surgical center from 2001 to 2007. Mortality, morbidity, long-term overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were evaluated.
Hospital mortality was 2.3%, and overall morbidity was 31.3%. After a median follow-up period of 27.8 months (range, 0-112 months), the 1-, 3- and 5-year OS rate was 69.9, 41.2 and 30.5%, and the 1-, 3- and 5-year DFS rate was 48.2, 30.3 and 24.0%, respectively. The 1-, 3- and 5-year OS and DFS rates were significantly poorer in patients with vascular invasion and/or extrahepatic spread than those in patients without (both P < 0.001), and also poorer in patients with biliary invasion than those in patients without (both P < 0.05).
Surgical resection could be considered in part of patients with advanced HCC (BCLC stage C), with low mortality, acceptable morbidity and favorable survival benefits. These results imply that BCLC recommendations for treatment schedules of advanced HCC need to be re-evaluated.
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 03/2012; 138(7):1121-9. DOI:10.1007/s00432-012-1188-0 · 3.08 Impact Factor
"In the present study, portal or hepatic vein tumor thrombi, seen in 13 patients (59%), was the only significant predictor of the prognosis . Ikenaga et al. showed that bile duct invasion was associated with a worse prognosis irrespective of the degree of invasion, that is, patients with biliary invasion only to a third-order or more peripheral branch showed a similarly poor prognosis to those with more proximal bile duct invasion (first-or second-order branches or the common hepatic duct) . Most of these studies advocated aggressive hepatic resection in selected HCC patients with macroscopic vasculobiliary invasion; however, additional preoperative or adjuvant treatments should be considered to improve the long-term outcomes. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Currently, surgical resection is the treatment strategy offering the best long-term outcomes in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Especially for advanced HCC, surgical resection is the only strategy that is potentially curative, and the indications for surgical resection have expanded concomitantly with the technical advances in hepatectomy. A major problem is the high recurrence rate even after curative resection, especially in the remnant liver. Although repeat hepatectomy may prolong survival, the suitability may be limited due to multiple tumor recurrence or background liver cirrhosis. Multimodality approaches combining other local ablation or systemic therapy may help improve the prognosis. On the other hand, minimally invasive, or laparoscopic, hepatectomy has become popular over the last decade. Although the short-term safety and feasibility has been established, the long-term outcomes have not yet been adequately evaluated. Liver transplantation for HCC is also a possible option. Given the current situation of donor shortage, however, other local treatments should be considered as the first choice as long as liver function is maintained. Non-transplant treatment as a bridge to transplantation also helps in decreasing the risk of tumor progression or death during the waiting period. The optimal timing for transplantation after HCC recurrence remains to be investigated.
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