Three endangered plant species, Plantago atrata and Pulsatilla slavica, which are on the IUCN red list of plants, and Senecio umbrosus, which is extinct in the wild in Poland, were inoculated with soil microorganisms to evaluate their responsiveness to inoculation and to select the most effective microbial consortium for application in conservation projects. Individuals of these taxa were cultivated with (1) native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) isolated from natural habitats of the investigated species, (2) a mixture of AMF strains available in the laboratory, and (3) a combination of AMF lab strains with rhizobacteria. The plants were found to be dependent on AMF for their growth; the mycorrhizal dependency for P. atrata was 91%, S. umbrosus-95%, and P. slavica-65%. The applied inocula did not significantly differ in the stimulation of the growth of P. atrata and S. umbrosus, while in P. slavica, native AMF proved to be the less efficient. We therefore conclude that AMF application can improve the ex situ propagation of these three threatened taxa and may contribute to the success of S. umbrosus reintroduction. A multilevel analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients by the JIP test permitted an in vivo evaluation of plant vitality in terms of biophysical parameters quantifying photosynthetic energy conservation, which was found to be in good agreement with the results concerning physiological parameters. Therefore, the JIP test can be used to evaluate the influence of AMF on endangered plants, with the additional advantage of being applicable in monitoring in a noninvasive way the acclimatization of reintroduced species in nature.
"Several papers illustrate this, e.g., stressed and unstressed plants were compared by van Heerden et al. (2007), whereas Zubek et al. (2009) compared leaves of plants with and without mycorrhiza, both ascribing the observed difference in the initial slope of the measured OJIP transients to an effect on the oxygen evolving complex of PSII. An alternative and more likely explanation—a difference in the effective antenna size between the samples due to differences in the growth light conditions—was not considered. "
"The method uses fast fluorescence induction kinetics to derive a number of parameters characterizing energy fluxes as well as the overall photochemical performance of photosystem II (PSII) in the measured samples (Strasser et al., 2004). Recently the method has been used in a number of ecophysiological studies including rare and protected plant species in natural habitats where the use of nondestructive and noninvasive instrumental methods has a great advantage (Thach et al., 2007; Jung et al., 2009; Samsone et al., 2009; Zubek et al., 2009; Albert et al., 2011; Andersone et al., 2011). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to analyse if the measurement of fast fluorescence induction kinetics in bryophyte samples in field conditions could be used for characterizing the photochemistry of photosynthesis in bryophytes. Bryophyte samples were collected in five different habitats of the boreo-nemoral zone growing on various substrates. Twenty-four species were epigeic, six epilithic, ten epiphytic, three epixylic, and six semi-aquatic or aquatic. Extremely high variation was found for fluorescence parameters between bryophyte samples. Performance Index showed the highest variability, reaching 160% in the case of epiphytic bryophytes. There were statistically significant differences for mean values of F v /F m , RC/ABS, and F v /F 0 between epigeic and epiphytic bryophyte samples as well as between epiphytic and semi-aquatic & aquatic samples. For Performance Index, a significant difference was observed only between epiphytic and epigeic bryophytes. It was concluded that bryophytes display a low intensity of the photochemistry of photosynthesis even in relatively wet habitats. In general, measurement of fast fluorescence induction kinetics in field conditions could be a rapid and efficient tool to obtain quantitative data useful for ecophysiological studies.
Estonian Journal of Ecology 06/2013; 62(2):137-149. DOI:10.3176/eco.2013.2.05
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microorganisms present in the rhizosphere soil plays a vital role in improving the plant growth and soil fertility. Many kinds of fertilizers including chemical and organic has been approached to improve the productivity. Though some of them showed significant improvement in yield, they failed to maintain the soil properties. Rather they negatively affected soil eventually, the land became unsuitable for agricultural. To overcome these problems, microorganisms have been used as effective alternative. For past few decades, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been used as effective inoculants to enhance the plant growth and productivity. PGPR improves the plant growth and helps the plant to withstand biotic and abiotic stresses. AM fungi are known to colonize roots of plants and they increase the plant nutrient uptake. Spore associated bacteria (SAB) are attached to spore wall or hyphae and known to increase the AMF germination and root colonization but their mechanism of interaction is poorly known. Better understanding the interactions among AMF, SAB and PGPR are necessary to enhance the quality of inoculants as a biofertilizers. In this paper, current knowledge about the interactions between fungi and bacteria are reviewed and discussed about AMF spore associated bacteria.
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