The surface protein TIGIT suppresses T cell activation by promoting the generation of mature immunoregulatory dendritic cells.
ABSTRACT Here we have identified a surface protein, TIGIT, containing an immunoglobulin variable domain, a transmembrane domain and an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif that was expressed on regulatory, memory and activated T cells. Poliovirus receptor, which is expressed on dendritic cells, bound TIGIT with high affinity. A TIGIT-Fc fusion protein inhibited T cell activation in vitro, and this was dependent on the presence of dendritic cells. The binding of poliovirus receptor to TIGIT on human dendritic cells enhanced the production of interleukin 10 and diminished the production of interleukin 12p40. Knockdown of TIGIT with small interfering RNA in human memory T cells did not affect T cell responses. TIGIT-Fc inhibited delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions in wild-type but not interleukin 10-deficient mice. Our data suggest that TIGIT exerts immunosuppressive effects by binding to poliovirus receptor and modulating cytokine production by dendritic cells.
- SourceAvailable from: Inna G. Ovsyannikova[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Rubella virus causes a relatively benign disease in most cases, although infection during pregnancy can result in serious birth defects. An effective vaccine has been available since the early 1970s and outbreaks typically do not occur among highly vaccinated (≥2 doses) populations. Nevertheless, considerable inter-individual variation in immune response to rubella immunization does exist, with single-dose seroconversion rates ~95 %. Understanding the mechanisms behind this variability may provide important insights into rubella immunity. In the current study, we examined associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in selected cytokine, cytokine receptor, and innate/antiviral genes and immune responses following rubella vaccination in order to understand genetic influences on vaccine response. Our approach consisted of a discovery cohort of 887 subjects aged 11-22 at the time of enrollment and a replication cohort of 542 older adolescents and young adults (age 18-40). Our data indicate that SNPs near the butyrophilin genes (BTN3A3/BTN2A1) and cytokine receptors (IL10RB/IFNAR1) are associated with variations in IFNγ secretion and that multiple SNPs in the PVR gene, as well as SNPs located in the ADAR gene, exhibit significant associations with rubella virus-specific IL-6 secretion. This information may be useful, not only in furthering our understanding immune responses to rubella vaccine, but also in identifying key pathways for targeted adjuvant use to boost immunity in those with weak or absent immunity following vaccination.Human Genetics 08/2014; 133(11). DOI:10.1007/s00439-014-1471-z · 4.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells represent key innate immune cells that restrain viral infection and malignant transformation and help mount an adaptive immune response. To perform such complicated tasks, NK cells express a wide set of inhibitory and activating receptors that alert them against cellular stress without damaging healthy cells. A new family of receptors that recognize nectin and nectin-like molecules has recently emerged as a critical regulator of NK cell functions. The most famous member of this family, DNAX accessory molecule (DNAM-1, CD226), is an adhesion molecule that control NK cell cytotoxicity and interferon-γ production against a wide range of cancer and infected cells. Its ligands CD112 and CD155 have been described in different pathological conditions, and recent evidence indicates that their expression is regulated by cellular stress. Additional receptors have been shown to bind DNAM-1 ligands and modulate NK cell functions bringing another level of complexity. These include CD96 (TACTILE) and TIGIT (WUCAM, VSTM3). Here, we review the role of DNAM-1, TIGIT and CD96 in NK cell biology summarizing the recent advances made on the role of these receptors in various pathologies, such as cancer, viral infections and autoimmunity.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 17 December 2013; doi:10.1038/icb.2013.95.Immunology and Cell Biology 12/2013; DOI:10.1038/icb.2013.95 · 4.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The immunoglobulin-like glycoprotein CD226 represents a receptor activating cytotoxic T and NK cells taking part in tumour surveillance. In addition, CD226 is involved in the differentiation of naïve CD4(+) T cells into effector cells. CD155 that is widely over-expressed on tumour cells, was identified as a counter-receptor of CD226 rendering many cancer cells sensitive to NK driven elimination. However, CD155 was also assigned a role in the establishment of follicular helper T cells in the small intestine and the final maturation of CD8 positive thymocytes. Here we show that mice lacking CD226 are distinguished by virtually identical phenotypes as already reported for CD155 deficient mice: a paucity of follicular helper T cells in Peyer's Patches and of terminally matured CD8 T cells in thymus. Moreover, like CD155, CD226 is involved in negative selection of CD8 thymocytes. These observations establish a firm link between the functions of CD155 and CD226 in several T cell differentiation steps.Immunobiology 02/2012; 218(2). DOI:10.1016/j.imbio.2012.02.010 · 3.18 Impact Factor