Determination of renal vascular resistance in dogs with diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism.
ABSTRACT In dogs, diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism are causes of hypertension associated with increases in vascular peripheral resistance. In human patients, the renal resistive index (ri) and pulsatility index (pi) are related to hypertension and diabetes and are used as indicators of disease severity. In this study the renal vascular resistance was measured in 12 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism, three with diabetes mellitus and four with both conditions, and the possible relationships between the two indices, blood pressure and biochemical parameters were investigated. Hypertension, defined as a systolic blood pressure more than 150 mmHg, was recorded in two of the dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and three of the dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and diabetes. The overall mean values for ri, pi and systolic blood pressure were higher in the diseased group of dogs than in 27 healthy dogs, and both indices were correlated with blood glucose concentration.
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ABSTRACT: Background Hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) is associated with an increased prevalence of hypertension. This study investigated the left ventricular function using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) in small breed dogs affected with spontaneous HAC.Age-matched healthy controls (n¿=¿9), dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH, n¿=¿10), and dogs with adrenal-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (ADH, n¿=¿9) were included in this study. Conventional echocardiography, global longitudinal and circumferential strain, and strain rate were assessed.ResultsOn group-wise comparison, left ventricular free wall (LVFWd) and interventricular septal thickness in diastole (IVSd) were thickest in the ADH group, followed by the PDH and controls (P¿=¿0.014 and P¿=¿0.001, respectively). Neither LVFWd nor IVSd was correlated with systemic blood pressure (P¿=¿0.238 and P¿=¿0.113, respectively). The values of all variables derived from the global strain and strain rate in longitudinal and circumferential directions followed the same pattern: highest in the controls, followed by PDH and then ADH (all P¿<¿0.05, respectively). On multiple regression analyses, global longitudinal strain, global longitudinal strain rate in systole and early diastole, and global circumferential strain all decreased linearly with increased IVSd (all P¿<¿0.05).Conclusions Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was more prevalent in the HAC group compared to the control group. Association between hypertension and development of LVH was not identified. Decreased global longitudinal and circumferential strains were associated with increased IVSd. 2D-STE revealed significant decreases in systolic functions that were undetected using conventional echocardiography in the ADH and PDH groups.Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 12/2014; 56(1):951. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective-To assess vascular changes induced by hyperadrenocorticism of hyperplastic adrenal glands in dogs via contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. Animals-12 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) and 7 healthy control dogs ≥ 7 years old. Procedures-Dogs were assigned to the PDH and control groups and to small-breed (n = 6), medium-breed (4), and large-breed (9) subgroups. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of both adrenal glands in each dog was performed with IV injections of contrast agent. Time-intensity curves for the adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla, and ipsilateral renal artery of both adrenal glands were generated. Perfusion variables (time to peak [TTP], upslope of wash-in phase, and downslope of washout phase) were calculated. Results-Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography revealed no qualitative difference between PDH and control groups. Quantitatively, TTPs were longer in the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla of the PDH group, compared with values for the control group, particularly in the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla of the small-breed subgroup. Washout downslopes were lower for the renal artery, adrenal cortex, and adrenal medulla of the small-breed subgroup between the PDH and control groups. No other perfusion variables differed between groups. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the adrenal glands in dogs with PDH revealed a delayed TTP in the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla, compared with values for control dogs. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was able to detect vascular changes induced by hyperadrenocorticism. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether reference ranges for clinically normal dogs and dogs with PDH can be determined and applied in clinical settings.American Journal of Veterinary Research 03/2013; 74(3):417-25. · 1.21 Impact Factor