We tested the hypothesis that hyperinsulinemia induces the suppression of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) function, leading to enhanced PDGF receptor (PDGFR) signaling and neointimal hyperplasia. Rats were implanted with insulin-releasing pellets or sham pellets. Blood glucose levels, insulin levels, food and water intake, body weights, and blood pressures were measured. Neointimal hyperplasia was assessed by computerized morphometry 14 days after carotid balloon injury. PTP1B protein expression in injured arteries was determined via Western blot analysis, whereas PTP1B activity was determined via an immunophosphatase assay. Serum insulin levels were two- to threefold greater in hyperinsulinemic rats, whereas systolic blood pressures, food and water intake, serum triglyceride levels, plasma cortisol levels, and urinary catecholamine levels were not affected. Fourteen days after injury, neointima-to-media area ratios were 0.89 +/- 0.23 and 1.35 +/- 0.22 in control and hyperinsulinemic rats, respectively (P < 0.01). PTP1B protein levels and total PTP1B activity in injured carotid arteries from the insulin-treated group were significantly decreased 7 or 14 days after injury, whereas PTP1B specific activity was decreased only 14 days after injury. These findings were associated with decreased PTP1B mRNA levels and increased PDGFR tyrosyl phosphorylation in insulin-treated rats. These observations support the hypothesis that hyperinsulinemia induces the suppression of PTP1B function, leading to enhanced PDGFR signaling and neointimal hyperplasia.
"Reportedly, insulin acts as a mitogenic stimulus that up-regulates vascular SMCs proliferation via Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways , and hyperinsulinemia promotes vascular remodeling and increased movement of SMCs from media to neointima causing an accelerated rate of restenosis  ; in cultured vascular SMCs, chronic insulin treatment induced time-dependent upregulation of PI3-kinase-d and Akt, and suppression of the expression and function of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1Beta (PTP1B) ; the latter process lead to enhanced PDGFR signaling and neointima hyperplasia . Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor (IGF-1R) supports aortic SMCs growth, migration, and extracellular matrix formation , and stimulates SMCs proliferation . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperglycemia stimulates a plethora of intracellular signaling pathways within the cells of the vascular wall resulting in dysfunction-associated pathologies. Most of the studies reported so far explored the effect of rather short-time exposure of smooth muscle cells to high glucose concentrations. To mimic situation in Type 2 diabetes in which vascular wall is constantly exposed to circulating hyperglycemia, we report here the long-term (7days) effect of high glucose concentration on human media artery smooth muscle cells. This consists in up-regulation of PTP1B protein expression, down-regulation of basal Akt phosphorylation, and elevation of basal ERK1/2 activation. Acute stimulation of cells in high glucose with insulin down-regulated PTP1B expression, slightly decreased ERK1/2 activity, and activated Akt, whereas oxidative stress up-regulated Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In conclusion, long-term high glucose and acute oxidative stress and insulin stimulation imbalance the expression of activated kinases Akt and ERK1/2 and of dephosphorylating PTP1B in the insulin signaling pathway.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2009; 388(1):51-5. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.07.141 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin has both growth-promoting and protective vascular effects in vitro, however the predominant effect in vivo is unclear. We investigated the effects of insulin in vivo on neointimal growth after arterial injury.
Rats were given subcutaneous control (C) or insulin implants (3U/d;I) 3 days before arterial (carotid or aortic) balloon catheter injury. Normoglycemia was maintained by oral glucose and, after surgery, by intraperitoneal glucose infusion (saline in C). Insulin decreased intimal area (P<0.01) but did not change intimal cell proliferation or apoptosis. However, insulin inhibited cell migration into the intima (P<0.01) and increased expression of smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation markers (P<0.05). Insulin also increased reendothelialization (P<0.01) and the number of circulating progenitor cells (P<0.05).
These results are the first demonstration that insulin has a protective effect on both SMC and endothelium in vivo, resulting in inhibition of neointimal growth after vessel injury.
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