Glycosaminoglycans modulate inflammation and apoptosis in LPS-treated chondrocytes
ABSTRACT Previous studies reported that hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulphate (CS) and heparan sulphate (HS) were able to reduce the inflammatory process in a variety of cell types after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in mouse articular chondrocytes stimulated with LPS. Chondrocyte treatment with LPS (50 microg/ml) generated high levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IFN-gamma, MMP-1, MMP-13, iNOS gene expression and their related proteins, increased NO concentrations (evaluated in terms of nitrites formation), NF-kappaB activation and IkBalpha degradation as well as apoptosis evaluated by the increase in caspase-3 expression and the amount of its related protein. The treatment of chondrocytes using two different doses (0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml) of HA, chondroitin-4-sulphate (C4S), chondroitin-6-sulphate (C6S), HS, keratan sulphate (KS) and dermatan sulphate (DS) produced a number of effects. HA exerted a very small anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effect while it significantly reduced NO levels, although the effect on iNOS expression and activity was extremely slight. C4S and C6S reduced inflammation mediators and the apoptotic process. C6S failed to decrease NO production, although iNOS expression and activity were significantly reduced. HS, like C4S, was able to reduce all the effects stimulated by LPS treatment. KS and DS produced no reduction in any of the parameters considered. These results give further support to the hypothesis that GAGs actively participate in the regulation of inflammatory and apoptotic processes.
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ABSTRACT: Recent research data on chondroitin sulfate have suggested that they have many new biological functions such as anti-atherogenesis, anticoagulation, prevention and cure of arthritis, protection and repair of neuron during CNS development, morphogenesis and cell division. They are widely applied to functional food, clinical medicine and biomaterial. However, these bioactivities and applications are dependent on their fine structure with different monosaccharide unit and sulfation patterns. This review provides information on intimate relationship between these biological functions and the structure. Moreover, we overviewed the newly analytical methods about the composition and fine structure of them, including chromatometry, high performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrum and nuclear magnetic resonance before and after enzymolysis.10/2010; 152-153:399-407. DOI:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.152-153.399
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ABSTRACT: In this paper, the interaction of cupferron (Cup) and its lead(II) complex [Cup-Pb(II)] with chondroitin sulfate (CS) was investigated by the linear sweep voltammetric method. In the selected medium of pH 5.5 (acetic acid-hexamine buffer solution), Cup can interact with Pb(II) to form a stable complex of [Cup-Pb(II)1, which has a sensitive second order derivative polarographic reductive peak at -0.64 V vs. SCE. After the addition of CS into a solution of the Cup-Pb(II) complex, the reductive peak current decreased without any shift of the peak potential and no new peak appeared, which indicated that a non-electroactive supramolecular complex of CS with [Cup-Pb(II)] was formed. The binding reaction conditions were carefully investigated. The interaction mechanism under the optimal conditions was discussed. The decrease of reductive peak current, I-p("), was directly proportional to the CS concentration, thus a new quantitative determination method for CS was established with the linear regression equation as Delta(")(p) / nA =36.97(c / mg L-1) + + 12.45 (n = 10, gamma = 0.995). The effects of other substances on the determination were carefully investigated and three synthetic samples were determined with satisfactory results. The binding constant (beta(s)) and the binding number (m) of CS with [Cup-Pb(II)] complex were calculated from the voltammetric data with the results beta(s) = 1.89x10(10) and m approximate to 2.5.Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society 01/2014; 79(2):199-209. DOI:10.2298/JSC130219048N · 0.89 Impact Factor
The Review of Diabetic Studies 01/2014; 11(1):84-101. DOI:10.1900/RDS.2014.11.84