Glycosaminoglycans modulate inflammation and apoptosis in LPS-treated chondrocytes

Department of Biochemical, Physiological and Nutritional Sciences, Section of Medical Chemistry, School of Medicine, University of Messina, Policlinico Universitario, 98125 Messina, Italy.
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 3.37). 01/2009; 106(1):83-92. DOI: 10.1002/jcb.21981
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Previous studies reported that hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulphate (CS) and heparan sulphate (HS) were able to reduce the inflammatory process in a variety of cell types after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in mouse articular chondrocytes stimulated with LPS. Chondrocyte treatment with LPS (50 microg/ml) generated high levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IFN-gamma, MMP-1, MMP-13, iNOS gene expression and their related proteins, increased NO concentrations (evaluated in terms of nitrites formation), NF-kappaB activation and IkBalpha degradation as well as apoptosis evaluated by the increase in caspase-3 expression and the amount of its related protein. The treatment of chondrocytes using two different doses (0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml) of HA, chondroitin-4-sulphate (C4S), chondroitin-6-sulphate (C6S), HS, keratan sulphate (KS) and dermatan sulphate (DS) produced a number of effects. HA exerted a very small anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effect while it significantly reduced NO levels, although the effect on iNOS expression and activity was extremely slight. C4S and C6S reduced inflammation mediators and the apoptotic process. C6S failed to decrease NO production, although iNOS expression and activity were significantly reduced. HS, like C4S, was able to reduce all the effects stimulated by LPS treatment. KS and DS produced no reduction in any of the parameters considered. These results give further support to the hypothesis that GAGs actively participate in the regulation of inflammatory and apoptotic processes.

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