Dissection of a QTL Hotspot on Mouse Distal Chromosome 1 that Modulates Neurobehavioral Phenotypes and Gene Expression

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.
PLoS Genetics (Impact Factor: 7.53). 12/2008; 4(11):e1000260. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000260
Source: PubMed


A remarkably diverse set of traits maps to a region on mouse distal chromosome 1 (Chr 1) that corresponds to human Chr 1q21-q23. This region is highly enriched in quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control neural and behavioral phenotypes, including motor behavior, escape latency, emotionality, seizure susceptibility (Szs1), and responses to ethanol, caffeine, pentobarbital, and haloperidol. This region also controls the expression of a remarkably large number of genes, including genes that are associated with some of the classical traits that map to distal Chr 1 (e.g., seizure susceptibility). Here, we ask whether this QTL-rich region on Chr 1 (Qrr1) consists of a single master locus or a mixture of linked, but functionally unrelated, QTLs. To answer this question and to evaluate candidate genes, we generated and analyzed several gene expression, haplotype, and sequence datasets. We exploited six complementary mouse crosses, and combed through 18 expression datasets to determine class membership of genes modulated by Qrr1. Qrr1 can be broadly divided into a proximal part (Qrr1p) and a distal part (Qrr1d), each associated with the expression of distinct subsets of genes. Qrr1d controls RNA metabolism and protein synthesis, including the expression of approximately 20 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Qrr1d contains a tRNA cluster, and this is a functionally pertinent candidate for the tRNA synthetases. Rgs7 and Fmn2 are other strong candidates in Qrr1d. FMN2 protein has pronounced expression in neurons, including in the dendrites, and deletion of Fmn2 had a strong effect on the expression of few genes modulated by Qrr1d. Our analysis revealed a highly complex gene expression regulatory interval in Qrr1, composed of multiple loci modulating the expression of functionally cognate sets of genes.

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Available from: Robert W Williams, Feb 17, 2014
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    • "These results highlight the importance of the region of distal chromosome 1 carrying Ity3, a region enriched in QTLs. Over 80 QTLs are listed at the mouse genome database (36) and a number of cis and trans eQTLs have been characterized (37). Among them, several QTLs are involved with complex inflammatory reaction, such as graft vs. host disease (38) lupus (39), modifier of LPS-response (40), and susceptibility to tuberculosis (41). "
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    ABSTRACT: Typhoid fever and salmonellosis, which are caused by Salmonella typhi and typhimurium, respectively, are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. We model typhoid fever using mice infected with Salmonella typhimurium, which results in a systemic disease, whereby the outcome of infection is variable in different inbred strains of mice. This model recapitulates several clinical aspects of the human disease and allows the study of the host response to Salmonella typhimurium infection in vivo. Previous work in our laboratory has identified three loci (Ity, Ity2, and Ity3) in the wild-derived MOLF/Ei mice influencing survival after infection with Salmonella typhimurium. Fine mapping of the Ity3 locus indicated that two sub-loci contribute collectively to the susceptibility of B6.MOLF-Ity/Ity3 congenic mice to Salmonella infection. In the current paper, we provided further evidence supporting a role for Ncf2 (neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 a subunit of NADPH oxidase) as the gene underlying the Ity3.1 sub-locus. Gene expression profiling indicated that the Ity3.1 sub-locus defined a global gene expression signature with networks articulated around Ncf2. Furthermore, based on differential expression and complementation analysis using Selp (selectin-P) knock-out mice, Selp was identified as a strong candidate gene for the Ity3.2 sub-locus.
    Frontiers in Immunology 08/2014; 5:375. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00375
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    • "The Ity3.2 sublocus is characterized by a hyper responsive inflammatory cytokine phenotype after exposure to Salmonella. These results provide new insights into the genetic architecture of the region of chromosome 1 carrying Ity3, a region known to harbour several QTLs linked to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental animal models of Salmonella infections have been widely used to identify genes important in the host immune response to infection. Using an F2 cross between the classical inbred strain C57BL/6J and the wild derived strain MOLF/Ei, we have previously identified Ity3 (Immunity to Typhimurium locus 3) as a locus contributing to the early susceptibility of MOLF/Ei mice to infection with Salmonella Typhimurium. We have also established a congenic strain (B6.MOLF-Ity/Ity3) with the MOLF/Ei Ity3 donor segment on a C57BL/6J background. The current study was designed to fine map and characterize functionally the Ity3 locus. We generated 12 recombinant sub-congenic strains that were characterized for susceptibility to infection, bacterial load in target organs, cytokine profile and anti-microbial mechanisms. These analyses showed that the impact of the Ity3 locus on survival and bacterial burden was stronger in male mice compared to female mice. Fine mapping of Ity3 indicated that two subloci contribute collectively to the susceptibility of B6.MOLF-Ity/Ity3 congenic mice to Salmonella infection. The Ity3.1 sublocus controls NADPH oxidase activity and is characterized by decreased ROS production, reduced inflammatory cytokine response and increased bacterial burden, thereby supporting a role for Ncf2 (neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 a subunit of NADPH oxidase) as the gene underlying this sublocus. The Ity3.2 sub-locus is characterized by a hyperresponsive inflammatory cytokine phenotype after exposure to Salmonella. Overall, this research provides support to the combined action of hormonal influences and complex genetic factors within the Ity3 locus in the innate immune response to Salmonella infection in wild-derived MOLF/Ei mice.
    PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e88009. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0088009 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "For 84% of the 32 QTL that were in linkage disequilibrium on distal Chr. 1, the B6 strain was used as breeding partner, suggesting that a variation in the B6 genome is responsible for the complex effects of Qrr1. Thus, we tested whether Nob3.38, in addition to modifying adiposity, body temperature, and energy expenditure [24], conferred some of the behavioral traits described for Qrr1 [25], [33], [35]. Congenic mice carrying the adipogenic NZO allele of Nob3.38 (B6.NZO-Nob3.38N/N) "
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    ABSTRACT: A region on mouse distal chromosome 1 (Chr. 1) that is highly enriched in quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling neural and behavioral phenotypes overlaps with the peak region of a major obesity QTL (Nob3.38), which we identified in an intercross of New Zealand Obese (NZO) mice with C57BL/6J (B6). By positional cloning we recently identified a microdeletion within this locus causing the disruption of Ifi202b that protects from adiposity by suppressing expression of 11β-Hsd1. Here we show that the Nob3.38 segment also corresponds with the QTL rich region (Qrr1) on Chr. 1 and associates with increased voluntary running wheel activity, Rota-rod performance, decreased grip strength, and anxiety-related traits. The characterization of a subcongenic line carrying 14.2 Mbp of Nob3.38 with a polymorphic region of 4.4 Mbp indicates that the microdeletion and/or other polymorphisms in its proximity alter body weight, voluntary activity, and exploration. Since 27 out of 32 QTL were identified in crosses with B6, we hypothesized that the microdeletion and or adjacent SNPs are unique for B6 mice and responsible for some of the complex Qrr1-mediated effects. Indeed, a phylogenic study of 28 mouse strains revealed a NZO-like genotype for 22 and a B6-like genotype for NZW/LacJ and 4 other C57BL strains. Thus, we suggest that a Nob3.38 interval (173.0-177.4 Mbp) does not only modify adiposity but also neurobehavioral traits by a haplotype segregating with C57BL strains.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53025. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0053025 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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