Validity and reliability of the brief COPE in carers of people with dementia: The LASER-AD Study

Department of Mental Health Sciences (Archway Campus), UCL, London, United Kingdom.
The Journal of nervous and mental disease (Impact Factor: 1.69). 12/2008; 196(11):838-43. DOI: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e31818b504c
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Brief COPE is a self-completed questionnaire measuring coping strategies. It comprises 14 subscales for which psychometric properties are described. Three composite subscales measuring emotion-focused, problem-focused, and dysfunctional coping have proved useful in clinical research and have content validity. We report psychometric properties of these subscales for the first time. One hundred twenty-five family carers of people with Alzheimer's disease completed the Brief COPE at time 1, 92 (82.9% of eligible carers) a year later, and 74 (77.1%) 2 years later. Internal consistencies were good for emotion-focused, problem-focused, and dysfunctional subscales (alpha = 0.72, 0.84, 0.75). Test-retest reliability over a year was demonstrated for emotion-focused, problem-focused, and dysfunctional subscales among carers in whom burden scores did not change significantly (r = 0.58, r = 0.72, r = 0.68; p < 0.001). Change in burden score over 2 years correlated with change in problem-focused and dysfunctional (r = 0.33, r = 0.32; p < 0.01) subscales, indicating sensitivity to change, but not with change on the emotion-focused scale. Change in emotion-focused coping correlated with change in problem-focused and dysfunctional coping (r = 0.40, r = 0.26; p < 0.05). Regression analyses indicated convergent and concurrent validity: emotion-focused coping was predicted by secure attachment (beta = 0.23) and by problem-focused coping (beta = 0.68); dysfunctional coping by burden (beta = 0.36) and less secure attachment (beta = -0.25) and problem-focused coping (beta = 0.31;all p < 0.05). The model predicting problem-focused coping included avoidant attachment (beta = 0.22; p = 0.014), social support (beta = 0.10; p = 0.25), care recipient activities of daily living impairment (beta = 0.12; p = 0.14) and less secure attachment (beta = -0.25; p = 0.011) and emotion-focused (beta = 0.53; p < 0.001) and dysfunctional coping (beta = 0.25, p = 0.006). These subscales are potentially useful in clinical research as they reflect possible components of interventions to change coping, although more information about sensitivity to change of the emotion-focused subscale is needed.

Download full-text


Available from: Gill Livingston, Dec 09, 2014
151 Reads
  • Source
    • "The strategies assessed by dysfunctional coping have also been categorized as disengagement or avoidant coping. Internal consistency and test–retest reliability of these three coping strategies are high and convergent, and concurrent validity has been provided (Carver, 1997; Cooper et al., 2008). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several studies have demonstrated that expression of a psychosis phenotype can be observed below the threshold of its clinical detection. To date, however, no conceptual certainty has been reported for the validity and reliability of sub-clinical psychosis. Our main objectives were to assess the prevalence rates and severity of various psychosis symptoms in a representative community sample. Furthermore, we wanted to analyze which latent factors are depicted by several currently used psychosis questionnaires. We also examined how those latent factors for sub-clinical psychosis are linked to psychosocial factors, normal personality traits, and coping abilities related to chronic stress. Most of the eight subscales from the Paranoia Checklist and the Structured Interview for Assessing Perceptual Anomalies had a very similar type of distribution, i.e., an inverse Gaussian (Wald) distribution. This supported the notion of a continuity of psychotic symptoms, which we would expect to find for continuously distributed symptoms within the general population. Sub-clinical psychosis can be reduced to two different factors - one representing odd beliefs about the world and odd behavior, and the other one representing anomalous perceptions (such as hallucinations). Persons with odd beliefs and behavior are under greater burden and more susceptible to psychosocial risks than are persons with anomalous perceptions. These sub-clinical psychosis syndromes are also related to stable personality traits. In conclusion, we obtained strong support for the notion that there is no natural cut-off separating psychotic illness from good health. Sub-clinical psychosis of any kind is not trivial because it is associated with various types of social disability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Schizophrenia Research 12/2014; 161(2-3). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2014.11.033 · 3.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "These findings support those of Nezu and Carnevale (1987) with Vietnam Veterans, in which they found those with PTSD used more dysfunctional coping. As noted, of the six coping strategies considered to be dysfunctional (Cooper, Katona, and Livingston, 2008), three were used more often among those volunteers with PTSD. Snell and colleagues (2011) also categorized the Brief COPE into three categories but suggested different names and categories of approach, avoidant and social or help seeking. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Approximately 13 to 30% of service members returning from Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom have Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (Institute of Medicine, 2012). The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between self-identified PTSD and self-reported coping abilities. Active duty and veteran volunteers (n=77) took the PTSD Checklist – Military Version (PCL-M), 26 were identified as having high PTSD scores (+PTSD) and 51 were identified as having low scores, such that they would not be suspected of having PTSD (-PTSD). Volunteers took the self-reported Brief COPE Inventory. Using independent samples T tests, those with +PTSD used dysfunctional coping strategies of Behavioral Disengagement (giving up, helplessness) t(32.735)=2.898,p=0.007; Venting (focusing on distress and venting emotions) t(36.537)=2.264, p=0.030; and Self Blame (self- criticizing and self-fault) t(38.147)=4.161, p<0.001 more often than those with -PTSD. These results provide information on the coping skills of those with self-identified +PTSD, according to the PCL-M. Further research and engaging new recruits and those with PTSD in learning positive coping skills are recommended.
    10/2014; 58(1):1252-1256. DOI:10.1177/1541931214581261
  • Source
    • "The Brief COPE is a self-completed questionnaire measuring coping strategies. Cooper et al. (2008b) investigated the validity and reliability of the COPE and its dysfunctional, problem-focused or emotion-focused subscales in carers of people with dementia. We found evidence for good internal consistency and construct validity and the brief COPE demonstrated sensitivity to change for the problem-focused and dysfunctional coping scales. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Research into the epidemiological, clinical characteristics and economic impact of dementia is critical to increase understanding and better inform care and policy, and empower people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their families to make preparations and timely decisions about accommodation, care and treatment. The LASER-AD longitudinal study of people with AD and their carers has contributed to our understanding of the progression, characteristics and costs of the disease, and to developing tools that help detect dementia earlier, and screen and identify problems experienced by carers. Our work on quality of life shows that even those with severe dementia can report this meaningfully, although family proxy ratings of quality of life do not necessarily mirror the views of the individual. Despite the impact of the disease process, people with AD experience well-being in adversity and still live fulfilling lives. The study highlights the high prevalence and severity of neuropsychiatric symptoms, carer anxiety, depression and abusive behaviour. It informs future directions for possible interventions, in particular the central role of carer coping strategies in predicting carer mental illness. Current research is building on our findings, which have also been used to inform national and international plans for managing people with dementia and their carers.
    International Review of Psychiatry 12/2013; 25(6):659-72. DOI:10.3109/09540261.2013.838152 · 1.80 Impact Factor
Show more