Long QT syndrome-associated mutations in KCNQ1 and KCNE1 subunits disrupt normal endosomal recycling of IKs channels.

Department of Physiology I, University of Tuebingen, Germany.
Circulation Research (Impact Factor: 11.09). 12/2008; 103(12):1451-7. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.108.177360
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Physical and emotional stress is accompanied by release of stress hormones such as the glucocorticoid cortisol. This hormone upregulates the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK)1, which in turn stimulates I(Ks), a slow delayed rectifier potassium current that mediates cardiac action potential repolarization. Mutations in I(Ks) channel alpha (KCNQ1, KvLQT1, Kv7.1) or beta (KCNE1, IsK, minK) subunits cause long QT syndrome (LQTS), an inherited cardiac arrhythmia associated with increased risk of sudden death. Together with the GTPases RAB5 and RAB11, SGK1 facilitates membrane recycling of KCNQ1 channels. Here, we show altered SGK1-dependent regulation of LQTS-associated mutant I(Ks) channels. Whereas some mutant KCNQ1 channels had reduced basal activity but were still activated by SGK1, currents mediated by KCNQ1(Y111C) or KCNQ1(L114P) were paradoxically reduced by SGK1. Heteromeric channels coassembled of wild-type KCNQ1 and the LQTS-associated KCNE1(D76N) mutant were similarly downregulated by SGK1 because of a disrupted RAB11-dependent recycling. Mutagenesis experiments indicate that stimulation of I(Ks) channels by SGK1 depends on residues H73, N75, D76, and P77 in KCNE1. Identification of the I(Ks) recycling pathway and its modulation by stress-stimulated SGK1 provides novel mechanistic insight into potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias triggered by physical or psychological stress.


Available from: Oana N. Ursu, May 02, 2015
1 Follower
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rab proteins are a large family of monomeric GTPases that comprise about 70 members. These proteins cycle from a GDP-bound to a GTP-bound state and are considered molecular switches of membrane traffic. Indeed, they control several steps of vesicular trafficking such as vesicle formation, vesicle movement on actin and tubulin cytoskeletal tracks, vesicle tethering, docking and fusion to the target compartment. Accordingly, Rab proteins are considered key factors in vesicular trafficking as they have a fundamental role in specifying identity and routing of vesicles and organelles. Given their role in membrane traffic, it is not surprising that Rab proteins control the cellular fate of several membrane molecules such as signal transduction receptors and ion channels, being thus fundamental for their correct function. However, much evidence of interaction of a number of Rab proteins with cargo has been reported, raising the question of the functional meaning of these interactions. Indeed, Rab proteins have been demonstrated to directly interact with several membrane proteins, such as signaling receptors, immunoglobulin receptors, integrins and ion channels. Growing evidence indicates that, through interactions with Rab proteins, cargos directly control their own fate. Furthermore, often a cargo protein has the ability to interact with more than one Rab and/or with the same Rab in different activation states. This review focuses on these interactions highlighting their role in modulating cargo's trafficking and functions.
    Histology and histopathology 04/2013; · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Infections with coxsackieviruses of type B (CVBs), which are known to induce severe forms of acute and chronic myocarditis, are often accompanied by ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. The mechanisms underlying the development of virus-induced, life-threatening arrhythmias, which are phenotypically similar to those observed in patients having functionally impaired cardiac ion channels, remain, however, enigmatic. In the present study, we show, for the first time, modulating time-dependent effects of CVB3 on the cardiac ion channels KCNQ1, hERG1, and Cav1.2 in heterologous expression. Channel protein abundance in cellular plasma membrane and patterns of their subcellular distribution were altered in infected murine hearts. The antiviral compound AG7088 did not prevent these effects on channels. In silico analyses of infected human myocytes suggest pronounced alterations of electrical and calcium signaling and increased risk of arrhythmogenesis. These modifications are attenuated by the common Asian polymorphism KCNQ1 P448R, a genetic determinant preventing coxsackievirus-induced effects in vitro. This study provides a previously unknown explanation for the development of arrhythmias in enteroviral myocarditis, which will help to develop therapeutic strategies for arrhythmia treatment.-Steinke, K., Sachse, F., Ettischer, N., Strutz-Seebohm, N., Henrion, U., Rohrbeck, M., Klosowski, R., Wolters, D., Brunner, S., Franz, W.-M., Pott, L., Munoz, C., Kandolf, R., Schulze-Bahr, E., Lang, F., Klingel, K., Seebohm, G. Coxsackievirus B3 modulates cardiac ion channels.
    The FASEB Journal 06/2013; 27(10). DOI:10.1096/fj.13-230193 · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Klotho is a transmembrane protein expressed primarily in kidney, parathyroid gland, and choroid plexus. The extracellular domain could be cleaved off and released into the systemic circulation. Klotho is in part effective as β-glucuronidase regulating protein stability in the cell membrane. Klotho is a major determinant of aging and life span. Overexpression of Klotho increases and Klotho deficiency decreases life span. Klotho deficiency may further result in hearing loss and cardiac arrhythmia. The present study explored whether Klotho modifies activity and protein abundance of KCNQ1/KCNE1, a K(+) channel required for proper hearing and cardiac repolarization. To this end, cRNA encoding KCNQ1/KCNE1 was injected in Xenopus oocytes with or without additional injection of cRNA encoding Klotho. KCNQ1/KCNE1 expressing oocytes were treated with human recombinant Klotho protein (30 ng/ml) for 24 h. Moreover, oocytes which express both KCNQ1/KCNE1 and Klotho were treated with 10 µM DSAL (D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone), a β-glucuronidase inhibitor. The KCNQ1/KCNE1 depolarization-induced current (IKs) was determined utilizing dual electrode voltage clamp, while KCNQ1/KCNE1 protein abundance in the cell membrane was visualized utilizing specific antibody binding and quantified by chemiluminescence. KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel activity and KCNQ1/KCNE1 protein abundance were upregulated by coexpression of Klotho. The effect was mimicked by treatment with human recombinant Klotho protein (30 ng/ml) and inhibited by DSAL (10 µM). In conclusion, Klotho upregulates KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel activity by 'mainly' enhancing channel protein abundance in the plasma cell membrane, an effect at least partially mediated through the β-glucuronidase activity of Klotho protein.
    Channels (Austin, Tex.) 01/2014; 8(3). DOI:10.4161/chan.27662 · 2.32 Impact Factor