"Mixed hypomania" in children and adolescents: is it a pediatric bipolar phenotype with extreme diurnal variation between depression and hypomania?
ABSTRACT Although DSM-IV and the literature on pediatric bipolarity recognize mania and mixed phases neither recognizes states of "mixed hypomania." There has been preliminary presentation of the latter phenomenon in the adult bipolar literature. The authors herein describe this phenomenon in a consecutive clinical series of bipolar children and adolescents.
This exploratory study involved 47 consecutive bipolar patients between the ages of 7 and 17 years presenting to an outpatient clinic. They were evaluated using a structured instrument designed to ascertain the presence of major depressive episodes (MDE), hypomania, mania, psychotic disorders, behavioral disorders such as oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder and substance use disorders. We defined mixed hypomania as MDE and hypomania coexisting over at least 2 weeks.
Of 47 patients, 9 girls (42.9%) and 9 boys (34.6%) were bipolar II mixed. This paper focuses on them. The mean ages of the bipolar II girls and boys were 14.3 (1.9) years and 12.0 (3.4) years, respectively (p<0.05, t=2.45, df=17). This mixed subgroup tended to experience rising mood in the evening, often with spikes of euphoria; a history of late afternoon to evening increased talkativeness or pressured speech was common. Some patients exhibited flight of ideas. Psychomotor acceleration, heightened level of energy, and increased goal directed activity between 1900 and 0300 were frequently reported. Retrospectively obtained circadian information revealed, in most cases an age inappropriate phase delay of sleep onset: After falling asleep in the early hours of the morning the patients awoke feeling depressed, lethargic and as if they could sleep throughout much of the day.
Cross-sectional, exploratory study based on a relatively small sample size and in need of replication in other clinical settings.
Mixed hypomania was a common phenomenon in pediatric bipolar II patients. It is apt to go unrecognized in cross-sectional assessments done in the morning or in the early or mid-afternoon. Those with this proposed phenotype would appear "depressed" at these times. Alternatively, what we have proposed can also be described as severe diurnal variation between depression and hypomania in the evening. Further study is required combining 24-hour clinical observation and state of the art technologically derived data.
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ABSTRACT: In children diagnosed with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD), disturbances in the quality of sleep and wakefulness are prominent. A novel phenotype of PBD called Fear of Harm (FOH) associated with separation anxiety and aggressive obsessions is associated with sleep onset insomnia, parasomnias (nightmares, night-terrors, enuresis), REM sleep-related problems, and morning sleep inertia. Children with FOH often experience thermal discomfort (e.g. feeling hot, excessive sweating) in neutral ambient temperature conditions, as well as no discomfort during exposure to the extreme cold, and alternate noticeably between being excessively hot in the evening and cold in the morning. We hypothesized that these sleep- and temperature-related symptoms were overt symptoms of an impaired ability to dissipate heat, particularly in the evening hours near the time of sleep onset. We measured sleep/wake variables using actigraphy, and nocturnal skin temperature variables using thermal patches and a wireless device, and compared these data between children with PBD/FOH and a control sample of healthy children. The results are suggestive of a thermoregulatory dysfunction that is associated with sleep onset difficulties. Further, they are consistent with our hypothesis that alterations in neural circuitry common to thermoregulation and emotion regulation underlie affective and behavioral symptoms of the FOH phenotype.09/2014; 3(3):959-971. DOI:10.3390/jcm3030959
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ABSTRACT: A substantial proportion of individuals with mood disorders present with sub-syndromal hypo/manic features. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the prevalence and illness characteristics of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Version-5 (DSM-5) – defined mixed features specifier (MFS) in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD).Method Data from participants who met criteria for a current mood episode as part of MDD (n=506) or BD (BD-I: n=216, BD-II: n=130) were included in this post-hoc analysis. All participants were enrolled in the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project (IMDCP): a collaborative research platform at the Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Toronto and the Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. Mixed features specifier was operationalized as a score≥1 on 3 or more select items on the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) or≥1 on 3 select items of the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) or Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) during an index major depressive episode (MDE) or hypo/manic episode, respectively.ResultsA total of 26.0% (n=149), 34.0% (n=65), and 33.8% (n=49) of individuals met criteria for MFS during an index MDE as part of MDD, BD-I and BD-II, respectively. Mixed features specifier during a hypo/manic episode was identified in 20.4% (n=52) and 5.1% (n=8) in BD-I and BD-II participants, respectively. Individuals with MDE–MFS as part of BD or MDD exhibited a more severe depressive phenotype (p=0.0002 and p<0.0002, respectively) and reported a higher rate of alcohol/substance use disorder in the context of BD but not MDD (p=0.002). Individuals with MFS were more likely to have co-existing heart disease suggestive of a distinct pattern of comorbidity and neurobiology.LimitationsData were post-hoc and obtained from individuals utilizing a university-based mood disorder centre which may affect generalizability.Conclusions Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Version-5-defined MFS is common during an MDE as part of MDD and BD. The presence of MFS identifies a subgroup of individuals with greater illness complexity and possibly a higher rate of cardiovascular comorbidity. The results herein underscore the common occurrence of MFS in adults with either BD or MDD. Moreover, the results of our analysis indicate that adults with mood disorders and MFS have distinct clinical characteristics and comorbidity patterns.Journal of Affective Disorders 10/2014; 172. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.09.026 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anxiety disorders (ADs) are common in youths with bipolar disorder (BD). We examine psychiatric comorbidity, hospitalization, and treatment in youths with versus without AD and rapid cycling (four or more cycles per year). Data from the Integrated Healthcare Information Services cohort were used and included 8129 youths (ages ≤18 years). Prevalence of AD, demographic, type of AD, hospitalization, and use of psychotropics were compared between rapid and nonrapid cycling. Overall, 51% of the youths met criteria for at least one comorbid AD; they were predominantly female and were between 12 and 17 years of age. The most common comorbid ADs were generalized ADs and separation ADs. In the patients with rapid cycling, 65.5% met criteria for comorbid AD. The BD youths with AD were more likely to have major depressive disorders and other comorbid ADs, to be given more psychotropics, and to be hospitalized for depression and medical conditions more often than were those without AD.The Journal of nervous and mental disease 12/2013; 201(12):1060-1065. DOI:10.1097/NMD.0000000000000052 · 1.81 Impact Factor