"Mixed hypomania" in children and adolescents: Is it a pediatric bipolar phenotype with extreme diurnal variation between depression and hypomania?
ABSTRACT Although DSM-IV and the literature on pediatric bipolarity recognize mania and mixed phases neither recognizes states of "mixed hypomania." There has been preliminary presentation of the latter phenomenon in the adult bipolar literature. The authors herein describe this phenomenon in a consecutive clinical series of bipolar children and adolescents.
This exploratory study involved 47 consecutive bipolar patients between the ages of 7 and 17 years presenting to an outpatient clinic. They were evaluated using a structured instrument designed to ascertain the presence of major depressive episodes (MDE), hypomania, mania, psychotic disorders, behavioral disorders such as oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder and substance use disorders. We defined mixed hypomania as MDE and hypomania coexisting over at least 2 weeks.
Of 47 patients, 9 girls (42.9%) and 9 boys (34.6%) were bipolar II mixed. This paper focuses on them. The mean ages of the bipolar II girls and boys were 14.3 (1.9) years and 12.0 (3.4) years, respectively (p<0.05, t=2.45, df=17). This mixed subgroup tended to experience rising mood in the evening, often with spikes of euphoria; a history of late afternoon to evening increased talkativeness or pressured speech was common. Some patients exhibited flight of ideas. Psychomotor acceleration, heightened level of energy, and increased goal directed activity between 1900 and 0300 were frequently reported. Retrospectively obtained circadian information revealed, in most cases an age inappropriate phase delay of sleep onset: After falling asleep in the early hours of the morning the patients awoke feeling depressed, lethargic and as if they could sleep throughout much of the day.
Cross-sectional, exploratory study based on a relatively small sample size and in need of replication in other clinical settings.
Mixed hypomania was a common phenomenon in pediatric bipolar II patients. It is apt to go unrecognized in cross-sectional assessments done in the morning or in the early or mid-afternoon. Those with this proposed phenotype would appear "depressed" at these times. Alternatively, what we have proposed can also be described as severe diurnal variation between depression and hypomania in the evening. Further study is required combining 24-hour clinical observation and state of the art technologically derived data.
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ABSTRACT: Sleep problems are an essential part of the current diagnostic criteria for depressive and bipolar disorders in children and adolescents. Whereas many studies have reported subjective sleep problems in youth with depression or bipolar disorder, except for reduced rapid eye movement latency associated with depression, few objective mood-related sleep abnormalities have been consistently identified. Recent technologic advances, such as spectral EEG and actigraphy, hold promise for revealing additional objective disturbances. There are presently few evidence-based published practice recommendations for mood-related sleep problems in youth. In this article, the authors chronologically review research on the phenomenology and treatment of sleep difficulties in youth with depressive and bipolar disorders and present research-based and clinically guided recommendations for the assessment and treatment of these problems.Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America 10/2009; 18(4):893-916. DOI:10.1016/j.chc.2009.04.007 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To review the efficacy of pharmacological agents in bipolar mixed states. We conducted a PubMed search of all English-language articles involving Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved agents for manic/mixed states in adults with bipolar I disorder. We also included names of agents established as efficacious in acute mania/mixed states that have not received FDA approval for bipolar disorder. Bibliographies from relevant articles were also searched. The efficacy of each agent in the mixed state subpopulation was reviewed, as evidenced by change from baseline on total scores of mania [e.g., Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS)] and depression [e.g., Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)] measures. No available study is dedicated exclusively to the evaluation of mixed state populations. Although key inclusion and exclusion criteria are similar across treatment studies, mixed states have been variably defined and measured. The use of conventional manic and depressive metrics in bipolar mixed states perpetuates the unproven notion that mixed states are the consequence of coexisting depression and mania. Notwithstanding the methodological limitations, there are numerically more studies that exist for atypical antipsychotic agents than for any other class. On the basis of symptomatic improvement, recommendations for and/or strong admonishments against any established antimanic agents (e.g., lithium) cannot be made. An emergent signal supports combination treatment strategies (e.g., atypical antipsychotic plus divalproex) over mood stabilizer monotherapy (e.g., divalproex). Available evidence does not empirically support the hypothesis that conventional antipsychotics engender and/or amplify depressive symptoms in bipolar mixed states. All proven antimanic agents (including lithium), can be recommended in the treatment of mixed/dysphoric states. The totality of evidence with attention paid to the therapeutic index of each agent would suggest that atypical antipsychotics and divalproex be considered as first-line treatment, with lithium and carbamazepine as second-line. Most individuals will require combination therapy for the treatment of mixed states; variable combinations of atypical antipsychotics and conventional mood stabilizers have the most replicated evidence.Bipolar Disorders 05/2012; 14 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):22-36. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2012.00990.x · 4.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The primary purpose of this study was to explore whether age differences in the phenomenology of bipolar disorders from 4 to 17 years of age exist. METHODS: Outcome measures included questionnaires pertaining to mood symptoms, psychosocial functioning, and family history of psychiatric illness. Phenomenology was examined in two diagnostic groups: syndromal bipolar disorder (bipolar I or II) and subsyndromal bipolar disorder (bipolar disorder not otherwise specified or cyclothymia) and across six age cohorts: 4-6, 7-8, 9-10, 11-13, and 14-17 years. Analyses examined linear and non-linear age effects on clinician-rated measures of mood and psychosocial functioning. RESULTS: Participants were 535 outpatients (339 males) ages 4-17 years. The proportion diagnosed with comorbid ADHD was significantly lower in the oldest age group. Age groups showed significant moderate decreases in motor activity, aggression, and irritability with age. Many symptoms of depression showed significant increases with age. BP I cases showed much higher manic symptoms, and BP I and BP II cases indicated slightly to moderately higher depressive symptoms, compared to subsyndromal cases. These patterns held after adjusting for comorbid ADHD, and age did not interact with syndrome status. There were also age differences in total scores for measures of mood symptoms and psychosocial functioning. LIMITATIONS: Mood ratings were completed based on the same interview that informed the research diagnoses. Also, mood episode at time of interview was not captured. CONCLUSIONS: These findings affirm the existence of bipolar disorder from pre-school children through adolescence, with a similar clinical presentation across a wide developmental age span.Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2012; 147(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2012.11.021 · 3.71 Impact Factor