Immune therapy for cancer [J]
ABSTRACT Over the past decade, immune therapy has become a standard treatment for a variety of cancers. Monoclonal antibodies, immune adjuvants, and vaccines against oncogenic viruses are now well-established cancer therapies. Immune modulation is a principal element of supportive care for many high-dose chemotherapy regimens. In addition, immune activation is now appreciated as central to the therapeutic mechanism of bone marrow transplantation for hematologic malignancies. Advances in our understanding of the molecular interactions between tumors and the immune system have led to many novel investigational therapies and continue to inform efforts for devising more potent therapeutics. Novel approaches to immune-based cancer treatment strive to augment antitumor immune responses by expanding tumor-reactive T cells, providing exogenous immune-activating stimuli, and antagonizing regulatory pathways that induce immune tolerance. The future of immune therapy for cancer is likely to combine many of these approaches to generate more effective treatments.
- SourceAvailable from: Alvaro Martínez-del-Pozo
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- "In this scenario, immunotoxins are highly specific therapeutic agents that hold promise as antitumoral agents. They combine the specificity of an antibody fragment with the potency of a toxin, causing death of the target cells (Pastan et al. 2007; Dougan and Dranoff 2009). "
ABSTRACT: Tagging of RNases, such as the ribotoxin α-sarcin, with the variable domains of antibodies directed to surface antigens that are selectively expressed on tumor cells endows cellular specificity to their cytotoxic action. A recombinant single-chain immunotoxin based on the ribotoxin α-sarcin (IMTXA33αS), produced in the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) yeast Pichia pastoris, has been recently described as a promising candidate for the treatment of colorectal cancer cells expressing the glycoprotein A33 (GPA33) antigen, due to its high specific and effective cytotoxic effect on in vitro assays against targeted cells. Here we report the in vivo antitumor effectiveness of this immunotoxin on nude mice bearing GPA33-positive human colon cancer xenografts. Two sets of independent assays were performed, including three experimental groups: control (PBS) and treatment with two different doses of immunotoxin (50 or 100 μg/ injection) (n = 8). Intraperitoneal administration of IMTXA33αS resulted in significant dose-dependent tumor growth inhibition. In addition, the remaining tumors excised from immunotoxin-treated mice showed absence of the GPA33 antigen and a clear inhibition of angiogenesis and proliferative capacity. No signs of immunotoxin-induced pathological changes were observed from specimens tissues. Overall these results show efficient and selective cytotoxic action on tumor xenografts, combined with the lack of severe side effects, suggesting that IMTXA33αS is a potential therapeutic agent against colorectal cancer.SpringerPlus 12/2015; 4(1):168. DOI:10.1186/s40064-015-0943-5
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- "Cancer cells may express a variety of tumor-associated antigens that can be recognized by the immune system; however, spontaneous immune responses to these antigens are rarely strong enough to cause tumor regression. Therefore, immune adjuvant-based therapies have been developed to activate antitumor immune responses (Dougan and Dranoff 2009). Microbial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are natural adjuvants that can stimulate the activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on antigenpresenting cells (APCs), which are then capable of priming antigen-specific adaptive immune responses (Kumar et al. 2011). "
ABSTRACT: Fungi of the genus Ganoderma are basidiomycetes that have been used as traditional medicine in Asia and have been shown to exhibit various pharmacological activities. We recently found that PS-F2, a polysaccharide fraction purified from the submerged culture broth of Ganoderma formosanum, stimulates the maturation of dendritic cells and primes a T helper 1 (Th1)-polarized adaptive immune response in vivo. In this study, we investigated whether the immune adjuvant function of PS-F2 can stimulate antitumor immune responses in tumor-bearing mice. Continuous intraperitoneal or oral administration of PS-F2 effectively suppressed the growth of colon 26 (C26) adenocarcinoma, B16 melanoma, and sarcoma 180 (S180) tumor cells in mice without adverse effects on the animals' health. PS-F2 did not cause direct cytotoxicity on tumor cells, and it lost the antitumor effect in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, and serum from PS-F2-treated tumor-bearing mice all exhibited antitumor activities when adoptively transferred to naïve animals, indicating that PS-F2 treatment stimulates tumor-specific cellular and humoral immune responses. These data demonstrate that continuous administration of G. formosanum polysaccharide PS-F2 can activate host immune responses against ongoing tumor growth, suggesting that PS-F2 can potentially be developed into a preventive/therapeutic agent for cancer immunotherapy.Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2014; 98(22). DOI:10.1007/s00253-014-6027-6 · 3.81 Impact Factor
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- "However, most of them are diagnosed at advanced stage or metastasis and lost opportunity of surgery. With the advances in medical technology, immunotherapy becomes an entirely new modality of treatment for lung cancer patients in complement to chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Dougan and Dranoff, 2009; Stroncek et al., 2010; Hontscha et al., 2011). Adoptive immunity is the extracorporeal modification process of immunological activity of a host after the immunological components are withdrawn from and then reinfused back into the same host. "
ABSTRACT: To investigate changes in cellular immune function of patients with lung cancer before and after cytokine- induced killer (CIK) cell therapy and to identify variation effects on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS).Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 08/2014; 15(15):6009-14. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.15.6009 · 2.51 Impact Factor