Immune therapy for cancer.
ABSTRACT Over the past decade, immune therapy has become a standard treatment for a variety of cancers. Monoclonal antibodies, immune adjuvants, and vaccines against oncogenic viruses are now well-established cancer therapies. Immune modulation is a principal element of supportive care for many high-dose chemotherapy regimens. In addition, immune activation is now appreciated as central to the therapeutic mechanism of bone marrow transplantation for hematologic malignancies. Advances in our understanding of the molecular interactions between tumors and the immune system have led to many novel investigational therapies and continue to inform efforts for devising more potent therapeutics. Novel approaches to immune-based cancer treatment strive to augment antitumor immune responses by expanding tumor-reactive T cells, providing exogenous immune-activating stimuli, and antagonizing regulatory pathways that induce immune tolerance. The future of immune therapy for cancer is likely to combine many of these approaches to generate more effective treatments.
- SourceAvailable from: Masahisa Jinushi[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) enhances protection against tumors and infections, but GM-CSF-deficient mice develop inflammatory disease. Here we show that GM-CSF is required for the expression of milk fat globule EGF 8 (MFG-E8) in antigen-presenting cells, and that MFG-E8-mediated uptake of apoptotic cells is a key determinant of GM-CSF-triggered tolerance and immunity. Upon exposure to apoptotic cells, GM-CSF-deficient antigen-presenting cells (APCs) produce an altered cytokine profile that results in decreased Tregs and increased Th1 cells, whereas concurrent ablation of IFN-gamma promotes Th17 cells. In wild-type mice, MFG-E8 attenuates the vaccination activity of GM-CSF-secreting tumor cells through Treg induction, whereas a dominant-negative MFG-E8 mutant potentiates GM-CSF-stimulated tumor destruction through Treg inhibition. These findings clarify the immunoregulatory effects of apoptotic cells and suggest new therapeutic strategies to modulate CD4(+) T cell subsets in cancer and autoimmunity.Journal of Clinical Investigation 08/2007; 117(7):1902-13. · 12.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that autologous tumor vaccines can induce relatively specific tumor-reactive T cells in draining lymph nodes. The adoptive transfer of these cells can result in tumor regression. Patients with stage IV renal cell cancer (RCC) were vaccinated with irradiated autologous tumor cells admixed with Calmette-Guérin bacillus. Approximately 7 days later, vaccine-primed lymph nodes (VPLNs) were harvested and the lymphoid cells secondarily activated with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody and expanded in interleukin 2 (IL-2). The activated cells were subsequently infused intravenously along with the concomitant administration of bolus IL-2 (360,000 U/kg intravenously x 15 doses). Thirty-nine patients were entered onto the study, of whom 34 completed an initial course of cell therapy consisting of a mean (SEM) number of 4.3 (2.2) x 10(10) VPLN cells. Among subjects who received cell therapy, there were nine responses (four complete responses [CRs] and five partial responses [PRs]), for an overall response rate of 27%. The durations of the CRs were > 48, 45, > 35, and 12 months, and the durations of the PRs were > 63, 48, 15, 12, and 4 months. Cultured tumor cells were available to assess in vitro cytokine release of VPLN cells in 24 subjects. The median cytokine release ratio of interferon gamma (IFNgamma) to IL-10 for responders and nonresponders was 992 and 5, respectively, which was significantly different (P =.047). The treatment protocol resulted in durable tumor responses in patients with advanced RCC. The ratio of IFNgamma and IL-10 cytokines released in response to tumor by the VPLN cells was a significant correlate with tumor response.Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2003; 21(5):884-90. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rituximab was recently approved for use in relapsed, low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; however, few data exist regarding the safety of this agent in patients with a high number of tumor cells in the blood. After the observation at our institution of a rapid reduction of peripheral-blood tumor cells with associated severe pulmonary infusion-related toxicity in two patients with refractory hematologic malignancies, data on three additional cases were collected from physician-submitted reports of adverse events related to rituximab treatment. Five patients with hematologic malignancies possessing a high number of blood tumor cells were treated with rituximab and developed rapid tumor clearance. The median age was 68 years (range, 26 to 78 years). Patients were diagnosed with B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (n = 2), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 2), or transformed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 1). All of these patients had bulky adenopathy or organomegaly. All five patients developed a unique syndrome of severe infusion-related reactions, thrombocytopenia, rapid decrement in circulating tumor cell load, and mild electrolyte evidence of tumor lysis, and all required hospitalization. In addition, one patient developed ascites. These events resolved, and four patients were subsequently treated with rituximab without significant complications. Rituximab administration in patients who have a high number of tumor cells in the blood may have an increased likelihood of severe initial infusion-related reactions. These data also suggest that rituximab may have activity in a variety of other lymphoid neoplasms, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia and B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia.Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/1999; 17(3):791-5. · 18.04 Impact Factor