Immune therapy for cancer.
ABSTRACT Over the past decade, immune therapy has become a standard treatment for a variety of cancers. Monoclonal antibodies, immune adjuvants, and vaccines against oncogenic viruses are now well-established cancer therapies. Immune modulation is a principal element of supportive care for many high-dose chemotherapy regimens. In addition, immune activation is now appreciated as central to the therapeutic mechanism of bone marrow transplantation for hematologic malignancies. Advances in our understanding of the molecular interactions between tumors and the immune system have led to many novel investigational therapies and continue to inform efforts for devising more potent therapeutics. Novel approaches to immune-based cancer treatment strive to augment antitumor immune responses by expanding tumor-reactive T cells, providing exogenous immune-activating stimuli, and antagonizing regulatory pathways that induce immune tolerance. The future of immune therapy for cancer is likely to combine many of these approaches to generate more effective treatments.
- SourceAvailable from: Ahmed A Mostafa
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ABSTRACT: Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) represents a technology to improve drug selectivity for cancer cells. It consists of delivery into tumor cells of a suicide gene responsible for in situ conversion of a prodrug into cytotoxic metabolites. Major limitations of GDEPT that hinder its clinical application include inefficient delivery into cancer cells and poor prodrug activation by suicide enzymes. We tried to overcome these constraints through a combination of suicide gene therapy with immunomodulating therapy. Viral vectors dominate in present-day GDEPT clinical trials due to efficient transfection and production of therapeutic genes. However, safety concerns associated with severe immune and inflammatory responses as well as high cost of the production of therapeutic viruses can limit therapeutic use of virus-based therapeutics. We tried to overcome this problem by using a simple nonviral delivery system. We studied the antitumor efficacy of a PEI (polyethylenimine)-PEG (polyethylene glycol) copolymer carrying the HSVtk gene combined in one vector with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) cDNA. The system HSVtk-GM-CSF/PEI-PEG was tested in vitro in various mouse and human cell lines, ex vivo and in vivo using mouse models. We showed that the HSVtk-GM-CSF/PEI-PEG system effectively inhibited the growth of transplanted human and mouse tumors, suppressed metastasis and increased animal lifespan. We demonstrated that appreciable tumor shrinkage and metastasis inhibition could be achieved with a simple and low toxic chemical carrier - a PEI-PEG copolymer. Our data indicate that combined suicide and cytokine gene therapy may provide a powerful approach for the treatment of solid tumors and their metastases.
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ABSTRACT: Present-day concepts concerning mechanisms of the antitumor effects of algal sulfated polysaccharides are considered. The antiproliferative, apoptotic, and antiangiogenic effects of these biopolymers are shown. Original results from studying the antitumor action of fucoidans produced from Far Eastern brown algae are briefly presented. Data from the authors and the literature suggest that the sulfated polysaccharides of marine algae may be the basis for the development of the next generation drugs with antitumor effects.03/2014; 4(2):122-132. DOI:10.1134/S2079086414020078