Distal 22q11.2 microduplication encompassing the BCR gene
ABSTRACT Chromosome 22 band q11.2 has been recognized to be highly susceptible to subtle microdeletions and microduplications, which have been attributed to the presence of several large segmental duplications; also known as low copy repeats (LCRs). These LCRs function as mediators of non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR), which results in these chromosomal rearrangements as a result of unequal crossover. The four centromeric LCRs at proximal 22q11.2 have been previously implicated in recurrent chromosomal rearrangements including the DiGeorge/Velocardiofacial syndrome (DG/VCFs) microdeletion and its reciprocal microduplication. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that the four telomeric LCRs at distal 22q11.2 are causally implicated in a newly recognized recurrent distal 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome in the region immediately telomeric to the DG/VCFs typically deleted region. Here we report on the clinical, cytogenetic, and array CGH studies of a 4.5-year-old girl with history of failure to thrive, developmental delay (DD), and relative macrocephaly. She carries a paternally inherited approximately 2.1 Mb microduplication at distal 22q11.2, which spans approximately 34 annotated genes, and is flanked by two of the four telomeric 22q11.2 LCRs. We conclude that the four telomeric LCRs at distal 22q11.2 can mediate both deletions and duplications in this genomic region. Both deletions and duplication of this region present with subtle clinical features including mild to moderate mental retardation, DD, and mild dysmorphic features.
SourceAvailable from: Miriam Coelho Molck[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The 22q11 chromosomal region contains low copy repeats (LCRs) sequences that mediate non-allelic homologous recombination, which predisposes to copy number variations (CNVs) at this locus. Hemizygous deletions of the proximal 22q11.2 region result in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS). In addition, 22q11.2 duplications involving the distal LCR22s have been reported. This article describes a patient presenting a 2.5-Mb de novo deletion at proximal 22q11.21 region (between LCRs A-D), combined with a 1.3-Mb maternally inherited duplication at distal 22q11.23 region (between LCRs F-H). The presence of concomitant chromosomal imbalances found in this patient has not been reported previously. Clinical and molecular data were compared with literature, in order to contribute to genotype-phenotype correlation. These findings exemplify the complexity and genetic heterogeneity observed in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and highlights the difficulty to make genetic counseling and predict phenotypic consequences in these situations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 01/2015; 167(1). DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.36809 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 22q11 deletion syndrome arises from recombination between low copy repeats on chromosome 22. Typical deletions result in hemizygosity for TBX1 associated with congenital cardiovascular disease. Deletions distal to the typically deleted region result in a similar cardiac phenotype but lack extra-cardiac features of the syndrome suggesting that a second haploinsufficient gene maps to this interval. The transcription factor HIC2 is lost in most distal deletions as well as a minority of typical deletions. We used mouse models to test the hypothesis that HIC2 hemizygosity causes congenital heart disease. We created a genetrap mouse allele of Hic2. The genetrap reporter was expressed in the heart throughout the key stages of cardiac morphogenesis. Homozygosity for the genetrap allele was embryonic lethal before embryonic day E10.5 while the heterozygous condition exhibited a partially penetrant late lethality. One third of heterozygous embryos had a cardiac phenotype. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a ventricular septal defect with overriding aorta. Conditional targeting indicated a requirement for Hic2 within the Nkx2.5+ and Mesp1+ cardiovascular progenitor lineages. Microarray analysis revealed increased expression of Bmp10. Our results demonstrate a novel role for Hic2 in cardiac development. Hic2 is the first gene within the distal 22q11 interval to have a demonstrated haploinsufficient cardiac phenotype in mice. Together our data suggests HIC2 haploinsufficiency likely contributes to the cardiac defects seen in distal 22q11 deletion syndrome.Circulation Research 04/2014; 115(1). DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.115.303300 · 11.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The 22q11.2 duplication syndrome has been recently characterized as a new entity with features overlapping the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Most 22q11.2 duplications represent reciprocal events of the typical 3-Mb deletions extending between low copy repeat (LCR) 22-A and LCR22-D. It has been suggested that the clinical manifestations observed in patients with 22q11.2 microduplications may range from milder phenotypes to multiple severe defects, and this variability could be responsible for many undetected cases. Here, we report on a patient with a 1.2-Mb microduplication at 22q11.2 spanning LCR22-F and LCR22-H which harbor the SMARCB1 and SNRPD3 genes. The patient presented healed cleft lip, mild facial dysmorphism, cognitive deficit, and delayed language development associated with severe behavioral problems including learning difficulties and aggressive behavior.Molecular syndromology 09/2013; 4(6):292-6. DOI:10.1159/000354095