The role of HIV in serious diseases other than AIDS

AIDS (London, England) (Impact Factor: 6.56). 12/2008; 22(18):2409-18. DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283174636
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of long-term antiretroviral therapy on serum immune activation markers was assessed in a cohort of 63 patients before and after 6 years of boosted lopinavir-based antiretroviral therapy. High levels of most markers were associated with lower CD4(+) T cell counts at baseline and at year 6, with the exception of soluble cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (sCTLA-4); high levels of sCTLA-4 were associated with higher CD4(+) T cell counts at year 6. Abnormalities of serum immune activation markers persisted after 6 years of ART but probably had different causes. Further investigation of the clinical usefulness of assaying immunoglobulin A, neopterin, and sCTLA-4 levels to assess the effectiveness of treatments for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease are warranted.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 10/2009; 200(8):1212-5. DOI:10.1086/605890 · 5.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Estimates of healthcare costs associated with HIV infection would provide valuable insight for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of possible prevention interventions. We evaluate the additional lifetime healthcare cost incurred due to living with HIV. We used a stochastic computer simulation model to project the distribution of lifetime outcomes and costs of men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) infected with HIV in 2013 aged 30, over 10,000 simulations. We assumed a resource-rich setting with no loss to follow-up, and that standards and costs of healthcare management remain as now. Based on a median (interquartile range) life expectancy of 71.5 (45.0-81.5) years for MSM in such a setting, the estimated mean lifetime cost of treating one person was £360,800 ($567,000 or €480,000). With 3.5% discounting, it was £185,200 ($291,000 or €246,000). The largest proportion (68%) of these costs was attributed to antiretroviral drugs. If patented drugs are replaced by generic versions (at 20% cost of patented prices), estimated mean lifetime costs reduced to £179,000 ($281,000 or €238,000) and £101,200 ($158,900 or €134,600) discounted. If 3,000 MSM had been infected in 2013, then future lifetime costs relating to HIV care is likely to be in excess of £1 billion. It is imperative for investment into prevention programmes to be continued or scaled-up in settings with good access to HIV care services. Costs would be reduced considerably with use of generic antiretroviral drugs.
    PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(4):e0125018. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0125018 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The risks and benefits of initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART) at high CD4 cell counts have not been reliably quantified. The Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) study is a randomized international clinical trial that compares immediate with deferred initiation of ART for HIV-positive individuals with CD4 cell counts above 500 cells/μL. We describe the demographics, HIV-specific characteristics and medical history of this cohort. Data collected at baseline include demographics, HIV-specific laboratory values, prior medical diagnoses and concomitant medications. Baseline characteristics were compared by geographical region, gender and age. START enrolled 4685 HIV-positive participants from 215 sites in 35 countries. The median age is 36 years [interquartile range (IQR) 29-44 years], 27% are female, and 45% self-identify as white, 30% as black, 14% as Latino/Hispanic, 8% as Asian and 3% as other. The route of HIV acquisition is reported as men who have sex with men in 55% of participants, heterosexual sex in 38%, injecting drug use in 1% and other/unknown in 5%. Median time since HIV diagnosis is 1.0 year (IQR 0.4-3.0 years) and the median CD4 cell count and HIV RNA values at study entry are 651 cells/μL (IQR 584-765 cells/μL) and 12 754 HIV RNA copies/mL (IQR 3014-43 607 copies/mL), respectively. START has enrolled a diverse group of ART-naïve individuals with high CD4 cell counts who are comparable to the HIV-positive population from the regions in which they were enrolled. The information collected with this robust study design will provide a database with which to evaluate the risks and benefits of early ART use for many important outcomes. © 2015 British HIV Association.


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