Standardization of terminology, definitions and outcome criteria in immune thrombocytopenic purpura of adults and children: report from an international working group.

Department of Hematology, San Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy.
Blood (Impact Factor: 9.78). 12/2008; 113(11):2386-93. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2008-07-162503
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Diagnosis and management of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) remain largely dependent on clinical expertise and observations more than on evidence derived from clinical trials of high scientific quality. One major obstacle to the implementation of such studies and in producing reliable meta-analyses of existing data is a lack of consensus on standardized critical definitions, outcome criteria, and terminology. Moreover, the demand for comparative clinical trials has dramatically increased since the introduction of new classes of therapeutic agents, such as thrombopoietin receptor agonists, and innovative treatment modalities, such as anti-CD 20 antibodies. To overcome the present heterogeneity, an International Working Group of recognized expert clinicians convened a 2-day structured meeting (the Vicenza Consensus Conference) to define standard terminology and definitions for primary ITP and its different phases and criteria for the grading of severity, and clinically meaningful outcomes and response. These consensus criteria and definitions could be used by investigational clinical trials or cohort studies. Adoption of these recommendations would serve to improve communication among investigators, to enhance comparability among clinical trials, to facilitate meta-analyses and development of therapeutic guidelines, and to provide a standardized framework for regulatory agencies.

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    ABSTRACT: Eltrombopag is a thrombopoietin receptor agonist with excellent treatment outcomes in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Here, we analyzed the dose of eltrombopag required to achieve and maintain safe platelet counts in Korean ITP patients. Adult refractory ITP patients (<30,000 platelets/µL) were enrolled. Eltrombopag doses were increased to achieve a target platelet count (≥50,000 cells/µL). After achieving the target platelet count, the dose of concomitant ITP medications and eltrombopag was reduced to identify the lowest effective dose required to maintain the platelet count. Among 18 patients, 66.7% achieved complete response, 5.6% achieved platelet counts between 50,000 and 100,000 cells/µL, and 27.8% failed to achieve the target platelet count. The median ITP duration was significantly shorter in patients who achieved the target platelet count. The initial dose required to achieve the target platelet count was 25 mg/d. The adjusted maintenance doses were 25 mg twice per week or 25 mg/d. After discontinuation, 83.3% relapsed, and the median relapse-free survival was 15 days. Two relapsed and 1 failed patient switched to romiplostim. The response to romiplostim was similar to eltrombopag. During eltrombopag treatment, 38.9% showed hepatobiliary laboratory anomalies. Among 9 follow-up bone marrow examinations, 1 revealed fibrosis after 1 year of treatment. Eltrombopag was well tolerated with excellent treatment outcomes in refractory adult ITP patients. Low-dose eltrombopag effectively maintained the target platelet count. However, some patients required longer or higher-dose treatment to maintain the target platelet count, especially in heavily pretreated or longer ITP cases.
    03/2015; 50(1):19-25. DOI:10.5045/br.2015.50.1.19
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    ABSTRACT: Thrombopoietin mimetics are new treatment options for patients with immune throm-bocytopenia (ITP). Because of their mechanism of action, long-term administration was envisioned in order to maintain effective thrombopoiesis. We report on 30 romiplostim treated patients: 13/27 responders (48%) achieved stable platelet counts on a mean romiplostim dose of 2.43 µg/kg and were able to stop romiplostim after a mean of 44.3 weeks (range 12-122) on therapy with sustained response maintained at a mean of 26 months (range 12-52). No bleeding events occurred during the observational period. No specific patient's features nor pattern of early response seemed to predict for sustained response. However, patients achieving safe platelet counts at lower dosages are probably worth a try of therapy tapering and discontinuation. Our observations support feasibility of romiplostim safe suspension in a relevant proportion of ITP patients.
    02/2015; 7(1):5673. DOI:10.4081/hr.2015.5673
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    ABSTRACT: Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune bleeding disorder with an unclear etiology. This study aims to investigate the role of IL-23/Th17 pathway in patients with ITP. The gene expressions of IL-17, IL-23 and their receptors in ITP patients and healthy controls were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. ELISA was used to test the IL-17 and IL-23 levels in plasma. Flow cytometry was used to detect the frequency of Th17 cells. The correlation between plasma IL-23 and IL-17 levels, Th17 cells, platelets were analyzed. The level of Th17-related cytokines was measured by ELISA following stimulation with IL-23. Subsequently, the IL-23 and IL-17 levels were measured in patients post-treatment. The PBMCs of ITP patients showed increased mRNA expression levels in each of the following: IL-23p19, IL-12p40, IL-23R, IL-12Rβ1, IL-17A, IL-17F, and RORC. In addition, elevated Th17 cells and plasma IL-17, IL-23 levels were also observed in these ITP patients. Furthermore, it was found that IL-23 levels in plasma are positively correlated with IL-17 levels and Th17 cells, yet negatively correlated with platelet count. Following IL-23 stimulation in vitro, IL-17 levels showed significant elevation. Furthermore, both IL-23 and IL-17 levels decreased after effective treatment. The IL-23/Th17 pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of ITP through enhancement of the Th17 response. Moreover, our results suggest that the IL-23/Th17 pathway is a potential therapeutic target in future attempts of ITP treatment.
    PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(1):e0117704. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117704 · 3.53 Impact Factor

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