PTK7 recruits DSH to regulate neural crest migration

Department of Developmental Biochemistry, Center for Molecular Physiology of the Brain (CMPB 37077 Goettingen, Germany.
Development (Impact Factor: 6.46). 01/2009; 135(24):4015-24. DOI: 10.1242/dev.023556
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT PTK7 regulates planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling during vertebrate neural tube closure and establishment of inner ear hair cell polarity; however, its signaling mechanism is unknown. Here, we demonstrate a new function for PTK7 in Xenopus neural crest migration and use this system in combination with in vitro assays to define the intersection of PTK7 with the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway that regulates PCP. In vitro, using Xenopus ectodermal explants, we show that PTK7 recruits dishevelled (dsh) to the plasma membrane, a function that is dependent on the PDZ domain of dsh, as well as on the conserved kinase domain of PTK7. Furthermore, endogenous PTK7 is required for frizzled7-mediated dsh localization. Immunoprecipitation experiments confirm that PTK7 can be found in a complex with dsh and frizzled7, suggesting that it cooperates with frizzled to localize dsh. To evaluate the in vivo relevance of the PTK7-mediated dsh localization, we analyzed Xenopus neural crest migration, as loss-of-function of PTK7 inhibits neural crest migration in whole embryos as well as in transplanted neural crest cells. Supporting the in vivo role of PTK7 in the localization of dsh, a PTK7 deletion construct deficient in dsh binding inhibits neural crest migration. Furthermore, the PTK7-mediated membrane localization of a dsh deletion mutant lacking PCP activity inhibits neural crest migration. Thus, PTK7 regulates neural crest migration by recruiting dsh, providing molecular evidence of how PTK7 intersects with the PCP signaling pathway to regulate vertebrate cell movements.

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    • "Studies showed that PTK7 regulates both the canonical Wnt and the noncanonical Wnt/planar cell polarity pathways [12,13]. In different biological systems, PTK7 interacts, either directly or indirectly, with plexins, semaphorins, the receptor for activated-C kinase 1 and protein kinase C δ1, Wnt3a, Wnt8, and β-catenin [12,13,14,15,16,17,18]. PTK7 has been identified as a protein with an important role not only in embryogenetic tube formation, but also migration and invasion of endothelial and cancer cells in vitro [19,20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7) has been studied in various tumors, but its role in prostate cancer remains unknown. This study is aimed to investigate the prognostic and predictive significance of PTK7 in patients with prostate cancer. PTK7 expression was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis in 20 pairs of benign prostatic hyperplasia specimens and prostate cancer specimens. Then, we examined the immunohistochemical expression of PTK7 in 180 prostate cancer specimens and evaluated its clinical significances. Elevated PTK7 expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastases, seminal vesicle invasion, prostate cancer stage, the higher preoperative prostate-specific antigen, the higher Gleason score, angiolymphatic invasion, and biochemical recurrence. The results revealed that the overexpression of PTK7 in prostate cancer was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival and biochemical recurrence-free survival. The present data provide evidence that PTK7 predicts lymph node metastasis and poor overall survival and biochemical recurrence-free survival, highlighting its potential function as a therapeutic target for prostate cancer.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 07/2014; 15(7):11665-77. DOI:10.3390/ijms150711665 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    • "In humans, the full-length membrane PTK7 consists of seven extracellular immunoglobulin-like (Ig) domains, a transmembrane region, a juxtamembrane region and a catalytically inert cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain [3]. The earlier experimental data suggest that PTK7 directly interacts with β-catenin [4], Wnt proteins [5,6], plexins and semaphorins [7,8], RACK1 and PKCδ1, recruits Dishevelled [9,10] and regulates both the non-canonical Wnt/PCP and canonical Wnt pathways. Because of severe defects in neural tube closure, mice with PTK7 truncation died during embryogenesis [1]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The full-length membrane protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7) pseudokinase, an important component of the planar cell polarity and the Wnt canonical and non-canonical pathways, is a subject of step-wise proteolysis in cells and tissues. The proteolysis of PTK7 involves membrane type-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), members of the Disintegrin Domain and Metalloproteinase (ADAM) family, and gamma-secretase. This multi-step proteolysis results in the generation of the digest fragments of PTK7. These fragments may be either liberated into the extracellular milieu or retained on the plasma membrane or released into the cytoplasm and then transported into the nucleus. We employed the genome-wide transcriptional and kinome array analyses to determine the role of the full-length membrane PTK7 and its proteolytic fragments in the downstream regulatory mechanisms, with an emphasis on the cell migration-related genes and proteins. Using fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells stably expressing PTK7 and its mutant and truncated species, the structure of which corresponded to the major PTK7 digest fragments, we demonstrated that the full-length membrane 1-1070 PTK7, the N-terminal 1-694 soluble ectodomain fragment, and the C-terminal 622-1070 and 726-1070 fragments differentially regulate multiple genes and signaling pathways in our highly invasive cancer cell model. Immunoblotting of the selected proteins were used to validate the results of our high throughput assays. Our results suggest that PTK7 levels need to be tightly controlled to enable migration and that the anti-migratory effect of the full-length membrane PTK7 is linked to the down-regulation of multiple migration-related genes and to the activation of the Akt and c-Jun pathway. In turn, the C-terminal fragments of PTK7 act predominantly via the RAS-ERK and CREB/ATF1 pathway and through the up-regulation of cadherin-11. In general, our data correlate well with the distinct functionality of the full-length receptor tyrosine kinases and their respective intracellular domain (ICD) proteolytic fragments.
    Cell Communication and Signaling 03/2014; 12(1):15. DOI:10.1186/1478-811X-12-15 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    • "The human PTK7 gene is located on chromosome 6 (6p21.1–p12.2) and consists of 20 exons [6]. It was recently shown that the orphan receptor PTK7 plays a major role in non-canonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling during vertebrate neural crest movement and establishment of inner ear hair cell polarity [7]. Perhaps the function of PTK7 is not only limited to PCP. "
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    ABSTRACT: Protein Tyrosin Kinase 7 (PTK7) is upregulated in several human cancers; however, its clinical implication in breast cancer (BC) and lymph node (LN) is still unclear. In order to investigate the function of PTK7 in mediating BC cell motility and invasivity, PTK7 expression in BC cell lines was determined. PTK7 signaling in highly invasive breast cancer cells was inhibited by a dominant-negative PTK7 mutant, an antibody against the extracellular domain of PTK7, and siRNA knockdown of PTK7. This resulted in decreased motility and invasivity of BC cells. We further examined PTK7 expression in BC and LN tissue of 128 BC patients by RT-PCR and its correlation with BC related genes like HER2, HER3, PAI1, MMP1, K19, and CD44. Expression profiling in BC cell lines and primary tumors showed association of PTK7 with ER/PR/HER2-negative (TNBC-triple negative BC) cancer. Oncomine data analysis confirmed this observation and classified PTK7 in a cluster with genes associated with agressive behavior of primary BC. Furthermore PTK7 expression was significantly different with respect to tumor size (ANOVA, p = 0.033) in BC and nodal involvement (ANOVA, p = 0.007) in LN. PTK7 expression in metastatic LN was related to shorter DFS (Cox Regression, p = 0.041). Our observations confirmed the transforming potential of PTK7, as well as its involvement in motility and invasivity of BC cells. PTK7 is highly expressed in TNBC cell lines. It represents a novel prognostic marker for BC patients and has potential therapeutic significance.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e84472. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0084472 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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