The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Perceived Barriers to Colorectal Cancer Testing
ABSTRACT Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is effective, but only one-half of age-eligible adults adhere to national guidelines. Lower socioeconomic status (SES) groups are less likely to be screened.
Baseline data from a prospective study were, used to examine the associations among CRC screening screening barriers, and SES. A convenience sample of adults (N = 291) aged 40 years and older was recruited from a federally qualified health center. Questionnaires were administered orally and included demographics, health, health behavior, and screening barriers.
In logistic regression, having health insurance was associated with greater odds of screening Bivariate analyses detected few differences in fecal occult blood test (FOBT) barriers, but several endoscopy barriers were more common among the lowest SES groups. For example, fear of injury from endoscopy was more likely among low-income and uninsured participants.
The impact of SES on cancer screening is complex, but low-SES participants more often reported certain barriers than their higher-SES counterparts. This was more evident for endoscopy than for FOBT. Programs targeted at low-SES patients may need to focus on barriers that are not fully addressed in traditional promotion efforts.
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ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is one of the most important and most common cancers and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Every year, nearly 1 million new cases of colorectal cancer are recognized around the world and nearly half of them lose their lives due to the disease. The statistics reveal shocking incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer, therefore secondary prevention of this cancer is important and research has shown that by early diagnosis 90% of patients can be treated. Among the colorectal cancer screening tests, fecal occult blood test (FOBT) takes the priority because of its convenience and also low cost. But due to various reasons, the participation of people in this screening test is low. The goal of this study is to assess the factors that affect participation of population at average risk in colorectal cancer screening programs, based on health belief model structures. A cross-sectional survey of 196 individuals, more than 50 years old, was conducted in Isfahan. Ninety-eight people of the target group were selected from laboratories while they came there for doing FOBT test; the method of sampling in this group was random sampling. The method of data collection in the other 98 individuals was by home interview and they were selected by cluster sampling. The questionnaire used was based on health belief model to assess the factors associated with performing FOBT. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. The mean score of knowledge in the first group was 48/5 ± 11/7 and in the second group was 36/5 ± 19/3. Individuals in the first group were more likely to be married, had more years of schooling, and better financial status. There were significant relationships between knowledge (P<0.001), perceived susceptibility (P<0.001), perceived severity (P<0.001), perceived barriers (P<0.001), and self-efficacy (P<0.001) in the two groups. There was no significant association between the perceived benefits in the two groups. Those people who have had FOBT test in last year in each group reported better score of Health Belief Model model structures. According to this study, it seems that there is an urgent need to pay more attention to this disease and its prevention through screening. With a better understanding of factors affecting the test, it can be a useful step to reduce the rate of death and costs, and improve the community health outcomes.07/2012; 1(1):18. DOI:10.4103/2277-9531.99218
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVE Lower socioeconomic groups have been found to have poorer health outcomes and engage in fewer health promoting behaviours. Understanding the reasons behind adverse lifestyle habits and non-willingness to participate in health promotion programmes among lower socioeconomic groups will enable administrators to modify the programmes and increase participation in this population. This study aimed to determine reasons for non-exercise, smoking and non-willingness to participate, and characteristics associated with non-willingness to participate in health promotion programmes among residents in Singapore. METHOD A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a purposive sample of residents living in four housing developments of one- and two-room households in Singapore from June to October 2009. The patterns of exercise and smoking, receptiveness towards health promotion programmes and the reasons for non-willingness to participate were elicited. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis were performed to identify differences between groups. RESULTS Seven hundred and seventy-eight responses were analysed. Only 36.1% of respondents were willing to participate in at least one health promotion programme (health screening, talk or workshop). Older respondents aged 45-64 years and more than 65 years were less likely to participate than their younger counterparts (18-44 years). Malays were more likely than Chinese to participate, and respondents who do not exercise were less likely to participate than respondents who exercise (regularly/occasionally). Reasons for non-willingness to participate were 'not interested' and 'no time'. CONCLUSION Health promotion messages should adapt to the needs and situation of the disadvantaged, to increase participation.Global Health Promotion 12/2012; 19(4):9-19. DOI:10.1177/1757975912453184
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ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States. Although CRC screening has been found to reduce CRC incidence and mortality, current screening rates among men are suboptimal due to various practical and psychosocial barriers. One potential barrier to CRC screening identified in qualitative studies with men is the threat to masculinity that endoscopic screening methods pose. Indeed, beliefs about masculinity have been predictive of other preventive health behaviors among men. In this review article, we propose a novel conceptual framework to explain men's CRC screening behavior that integrates masculinity norms, gender role conflict, men's health care experiences, behaviors, and beliefs, and social and background variables. This framework has the potential to guide future research on men's CRC screening behaviors and other health behaviors and may inform gender-sensitive interventions that target masculinity beliefs to increase preventive health behaviors.American journal of men's health 06/2013; 8(1). DOI:10.1177/1557988313492171 · 1.15 Impact Factor