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Paus T, Keshavan M, Giedd JN. Why do many psychiatric disorders emerge during adolescence? Nat Rev Neurosci 9: 947-957

Brain & Body Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK.
Nature Reviews Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 31.38). 01/2009; 9(12):947-57. DOI: 10.1038/nrn2513
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The peak age of onset for many psychiatric disorders is adolescence, a time of remarkable physical and behavioural changes. The processes in the brain that underlie these behavioural changes have been the subject of recent investigations. What do we know about the maturation of the human brain during adolescence? Do structural changes in the cerebral cortex reflect synaptic pruning? Are increases in white-matter volume driven by myelination? Is the adolescent brain more or less sensitive to reward? Finding answers to these questions might enable us to further our understanding of mental health during adolescence.

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Available from: Matcheri Keshavan, Jul 18, 2014
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    • "Nevertheless, aversive environmental factors experienced by an individual during this window of vulnerability can also result in maladaptive changes in brain development; the qualitative and quantitative nature of which depends on various factors (Spear, 2011). Hence, it is not surprising that many adult neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia, have their roots in this vulnerable period (Paus et al., 2008). The gut microbiota through associated metabolic and immune activities, afford significant advantages to the host throughout development (Selkrig et al., 2014). "
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    • "Adolescence is associated with both increased incidence and differentiation of clinical level problem behaviors and thus has been conceptualized as a period of high risk for the development of psychopathology (Casey, Jones, & Hare, 2008; Nottelmann & Jensen, 1995; Paus, Keshavan, & Giedd, 2008). Problem behaviors during childhood and adolescence can be broadly classified into externalizing (e.g., aggression) and internalizing (e.g., depression and anxiety) problems , which commonly co-occur (Angold, Costello, & Erkanli, 1999). "
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