The existence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the water environment is an emerging problem. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of eleven PPCPs through bioassays on bacteria, algae, crustaceans, amphibians and protozoa, and compared the toxicology indexes with the concentration of PPCPs in river water for ecotoxiclogical risk evaluation. Toxicity of the eleven PPCPs was observed and the values of EC50 or LC50 were in the order of mg/L. A distinctive finding is that antibacterial triclosan affected all aquatic lives tested. The effects of PPCPs varied according to species of lives. Contamination from PPCPs was detected at observation stations on the river, and the range of concentration was in the order of ng/L far lower than the values of toxicity indexes EC50 or LC50. Ecotoxicological risks posed by PPCPs at the observation stations was evaluated using the concentration in the river water and the NOEC examined by AGI tests. The results revealed that three PPCPs, triclosan, clarithromycin, and azithromycin, posed an ecotoxiclogical risk in rivers where wastewater treatment systems are not yet well developed.
"They can be accumulated in algae (Coogan et al., 2007), snails (Coogan and La Point, 2008), and wetland plants (Stevens et al., 2009; Zarate et al., 2012) with relatively significant toxicity at the concentration range of 100– 100,000 ng/L (Dussault et al., 2008; Ishibashi et al., 2004; Orvos et al., 2002). Exposures with frequent or prolonged topical applications of DEET, an insect repellent, may result in central nervous system toxicity in some individual humans (Antwi et al., 2008) and inhibit growth or even cause mortality of algae, crustacean, and fish (Harada et al., 2008; Weeks et al., 2012; USEPA, 2013). Benzotriazole (BT) and methylbenzotriazole (MBT) may inhibit growth and vitality of algae and duckweed, and affect reproduction of daphnids (Cornell et al., 2000; Seeland et al., 2012). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Home and personal care products (HPCPs) including biocides, benzotriazoles (BTs) and ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in our daily life. After use, they are discharged with domestic wastewater into the receiving environment. This study investigated the occurrence of 29 representative HPCPs, including biocides, BTs and UV filters, in the riverine environment of a rural region of South China where no wastewater treatment plants were present, and assessed their potential ecological risks to aquatic organisms. The results showed the detection of 11 biocides and 4 BTs in surface water, and 9 biocides, 3 BTs and 4 UV filters in sediment. In surface water, methylparaben (MeP), triclocarban (TCC), and triclosan (TCS) were detected at all sites with median concentrations of 9.23ng/L, 2.64ng/L and 5.39ng/L, respectively. However, the highest median concentrations were found for clotrimazole (CLOT), 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (MBT) and carbendazim (CARB) at 55.6ng/L, 33.7ng/L and 13.8ng/L, respectively. In sediment, TCC, TCS, and UV-326 were detected with their maximum concentrations up to 353ng/g, 155ng/g, and 133ng/g, respectively. The concentrations for those detected HPCPs in surface water and sediment were generally lower in the upper reach (rural area) of Sha River than in the lower reach of Sha River with close proximity to Dongjiang River (Pt-test<0.05), indicating other input sources of HPCPs in the lower reach. Biocides showed significantly higher levels in surface water in the wet season than in the dry and intermediate seasons. Preliminary risk assessment demonstrated that the majority of HPCPs monitored represented low risk in surface waters. There are potentially greater risks to aquatic organisms from the use of TCS and TCC in the wet season than in dry and intermediate seasons in surface waters. This preliminary assessment also indicates potential concerns associated with TCC, TCS, DEET, CARB, and CLOT in sediments, although additional data should be generated to assess this fully. Thus future research is needed to investigate ecological effects of these HPCPs on benthic organisms in sediment of rural rivers receiving untreated wastewater discharge.
"Furthermore, the stability of the antibiotic and the production of metabolites and other derivatives during biological treatment are important, as they may be as active as the parent compound or even toxic to organisms, something that stands true for all pharmaceutical compounds. Very few studies examine the impact of CLA in wastewater effluents regarding its ability to be toxic to organisms and to produce antibiotic resistance in microorganisms once it is released into the environment (Harada et al., 2008; Kim et al., 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of pathogenic antibiotic-resistant bacteria in aquatic environments has become a health threat in the last few years. Their presence has increased due to the presence of antibiotics in wastewater effluents, which are not efficiently removed by conventional wastewater treatments. As a result there is a need to study the possible ways of removal of the mixtures of antibiotics present in wastewater effluents and the antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which may also spread the antibiotic resistance genes to other bacterial populations. In this study the degradation of a mixture of antibiotics i.e. sulfamethoxazole and clarithromycin, the disinfection of total enterococci and the removal of those resistant to: a) sulfamethoxazole, b) clarithromycin and c) to both antibiotics have been examined, along with the toxicity of the whole effluent mixture after treatment to the luminescent aquatic bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Solar Fenton treatment (natural solar driven oxidation) using Fenton reagent doses of 50mgL(-1) of hydrogen peroxide and 5mgL(-1) of Fe(3+) in a pilot-scale compound parabolic collector plant was used to examine the disinfection and antibiotic resistance removal efficiency in different aqueous matrices, namely distilled water, simulated and real wastewater effluents. There was a faster complete removal of enterococci and of antibiotics in all aqueous matrices by applying solar Fenton when compared to photolytic treatment of the matrices. Sulfamethoxazole was more efficiently degraded than clarithromycin in all three aqueous matrices (95% removal of sulfamethoxazole and 70% removal of clarithromycin in real wastewater). The antibiotic resistance of enterococci towards both antibiotics exhibited a 5-log reduction with solar Fenton in real wastewater effluent. Also after solar Fenton treatment, there were 10 times more antibiotic-resistant enterococci in the presence of sulfamethoxazole than in the presence of clarithromycin. Finally, the toxicity of the treated wastewater to V. fischeri remained very low throughout the treatment time.
Science of The Total Environment 08/2013; 468-469C:19-27. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.08.027 · 4.10 Impact Factor
"For a higher pH of 8.5 and the same duration of exposure time, the survival and reproduction NOEC values was 339 and 182 μg/L, respectively, showing that the molecular form of TCS is more toxic than the dissociated one at higher pH (Orvos et al. 2002). For amphibians, the 7-day NOEC value obtained with X. laevis was 400 and the 96- h growth inhibition LC 50 was 820 μg/L (Harada et al. 2008; Matsumura et al. 2005). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A review was undertaken on the occurrence, toxicity, and degradation of triclosan (TCS; 5-chloro-2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) in the environment. TCS is a synthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial agent incorporated in a wide variety of household and personal care products such as hand soap, toothpaste, and deodorants but also in textile fibers used in a range of other consumer products (e.g., toys, undergarments and cutting boards among other things). OCCURRENCE: Because of its partial elimination in sewage treatment plants, most reports describe TCS as one of the most commonly encountered substances in solid and water environmental compartments. It has been detected in a microgram per liter or microgram per kilogram level in sewage treatment plants (influents, effluents, and sludges), natural waters (rivers, lakes, and estuarine waters), and sediments as well as in drinking water.
Moreover, due to its high hydrophobicity, TCS can accumulate in fatty tissues and has been found in fish and human samples (urine, breast milk, and serum). TCS is known to be biodegradable, photo-unstable, and reactive towards chlorine and ozone.
As a consequence, it can be transformed into potentially more toxic and persistent compounds, such as chlorinated phenols and biphenyl ethers after chlorination, methyl triclosan after biological methylation, and chlorinated dibenzodioxins after photooxidation. The toxicity of TCS toward aquatic organisms like fish, crustaceans, and algae has been demonstrated with EC50 values near TCS environmental concentrations. It has even been shown to produce cytotoxic, genotoxic, and endocrine disruptor effects.
Furthermore, the excessive use of TCS is suspected to increase the risk of emergence of TCS-resistant bacteria and the selection of resistant strains.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 11/2011; 19(4):1044-65. DOI:10.1007/s11356-011-0632-z · 2.83 Impact Factor
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