Biological effects of PPCPs on aquatic lives and evaluation of river waters affected by different wastewater treatment levels
ABSTRACT The existence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the water environment is an emerging problem. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of eleven PPCPs through bioassays on bacteria, algae, crustaceans, amphibians and protozoa, and compared the toxicology indexes with the concentration of PPCPs in river water for ecotoxiclogical risk evaluation. Toxicity of the eleven PPCPs was observed and the values of EC50 or LC50 were in the order of mg/L. A distinctive finding is that antibacterial triclosan affected all aquatic lives tested. The effects of PPCPs varied according to species of lives. Contamination from PPCPs was detected at observation stations on the river, and the range of concentration was in the order of ng/L far lower than the values of toxicity indexes EC50 or LC50. Ecotoxicological risks posed by PPCPs at the observation stations was evaluated using the concentration in the river water and the NOEC examined by AGI tests. The results revealed that three PPCPs, triclosan, clarithromycin, and azithromycin, posed an ecotoxiclogical risk in rivers where wastewater treatment systems are not yet well developed.
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ABSTRACT: A review was undertaken on the occurrence, toxicity, and degradation of triclosan (TCS; 5-chloro-2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) in the environment. TCS is a synthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial agent incorporated in a wide variety of household and personal care products such as hand soap, toothpaste, and deodorants but also in textile fibers used in a range of other consumer products (e.g., toys, undergarments and cutting boards among other things). OCCURRENCE: Because of its partial elimination in sewage treatment plants, most reports describe TCS as one of the most commonly encountered substances in solid and water environmental compartments. It has been detected in a microgram per liter or microgram per kilogram level in sewage treatment plants (influents, effluents, and sludges), natural waters (rivers, lakes, and estuarine waters), and sediments as well as in drinking water. Moreover, due to its high hydrophobicity, TCS can accumulate in fatty tissues and has been found in fish and human samples (urine, breast milk, and serum). TCS is known to be biodegradable, photo-unstable, and reactive towards chlorine and ozone. As a consequence, it can be transformed into potentially more toxic and persistent compounds, such as chlorinated phenols and biphenyl ethers after chlorination, methyl triclosan after biological methylation, and chlorinated dibenzodioxins after photooxidation. The toxicity of TCS toward aquatic organisms like fish, crustaceans, and algae has been demonstrated with EC50 values near TCS environmental concentrations. It has even been shown to produce cytotoxic, genotoxic, and endocrine disruptor effects. Furthermore, the excessive use of TCS is suspected to increase the risk of emergence of TCS-resistant bacteria and the selection of resistant strains.Environmental Science and Pollution Research 11/2011; 19(4):1044-65. DOI:10.1007/s11356-011-0632-z · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Organic pollutants, heavy metals and pharmaceuticals are continuously dispersed into the environment and have become a relevant environmental emerging concern. In this study, a situ assay to assess ecotoxicity of mixed pollutants was carried out in three typical sites with different priority contaminations in Guangzhou, China. Chemical analysis of organic pollutants, metals and quinolones in three exposure sites were determined by GC-ECD/MS, ICP-AES and HPLC, as well as, a combination of biomarkers including: ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD); aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND); erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND); glutathione S-transferase (GST); malondialdehyde (MDA); CYP1A; and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mRNA expressions were evaluated in Mugilogobius abei. Results of chemical analysis in sediment samples revealed that the dominant chemicals were organic pollutants and heavy metals in Huadi River while quinolones in the pond. Bioassays indicated that differences among sites were in relation to some specific biomarkers. EROD and GST activities significantly increased after 72 h in situ exposure, but no difference was observed among the exposure sites. APND, ERND and MDA exhibited dissimilar change patterns for different priority pollutants. CYP1A and P-gp mRNA expressions were significantly induced at all exposure sites, whilst P-gp activity was typical for S2 with the highest levels of quinolones. The molecular biomarkers seemed to be more susceptible than enzyme activities. These assays confirmed the usefulness of applying a large array of various combined biomarkers at different levels, in assessing the toxic effects of mixed pollutants in a natural aquatic environment.Chemosphere 05/2011; 84(10):1422-31. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.04.054 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, natural and synthetic estrogens have been recognized as endocrine disruptors in aquatic organisms. Although natural and synthetic estrogens are known to be degraded by microbes, only limited information about their degradation pathways is available. Here, we studied the degradation pathways of a natural estrogen, 17β-estradiol, by the nitrifying microorganism Nitrosomonas europaea, and we determined whether the degradation products of 17β-estradiol had estrogenic activity. To identify the degradation products, we subjected the culture solution to solid-phase extraction, and the extract was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The potential estrogenic activity of the degradation products was investigated by means of a yeast two-hybrid assay. 1,3,5(10),16-Estratetraen-3-ol (estratetraenol) was newly identified as a degradation intermediate produced by dehydration of 17β-estradiol. Estratetraenol was also degraded by N. europaea, and its degradation rate was faster than that of 17β-estradiol. The two-hybrid assay confirmed that estratetraenol acted as a ligand for the estrogen receptor; estratetraenol thus has potential estrogenic activity. N. europaea eliminated the estrogenic activity derived from 17β-estradiol. This paper is the first to report dehydration as a mechanism of microbial estrogen degradation. KeywordsDehydration–17β-estradiol–Estratetraenol–Degradation product– Nitrosomonas europaeaEnvironmental Chemistry Letters 03/2010; 9(1):1-6. DOI:10.1007/s10311-010-0308-9 · 1.91 Impact Factor