The Baltimore Eligible Metropolitan Area (EMA) receives Ryan White (RW) funds each year because of its high AIDS case rate. This study assessed the quality of primary care services provided to HIV-infected clients in the Baltimore EMA. Medical charts of 384 randomly selected clients served in 2004 were reviewed. A survey instrument was designed to assess the minimum requirements satisfied for CD4 and viral load count, highly active antiretroviral treatment, pneumocystitis carinii pneumonia and mycobacterium avium complex prophylaxis, tuberculosis, syphilis, hepatitis B and C screening and safe sex education. A numeric index of quality was developed for each client in the form of a total score. The clients were categorized into high, medium and low quality groups depending on their total scores. Only 32% of clients were in the high-quality category. Number of primary care visits per year (P <or= .0001) was found to be significantly associated with quality of care. Proactive efforts are needed at the provider level to keep or reengage HIV clients in care.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 'test and treat' strategy to reduce HIV transmission hinges on linking and retaining HIV patients in care to achieve the full benefit of antiretroviral therapy. We integrated empirical findings and estimated the percentage of HIV-positive persons in the United States who entered HIV medical care soon after their diagnosis; and were retained in care during specified assessment intervals.
We comprehensively searched databases and bibliographic lists to identify studies that collected data from May 1995 through 2009. Separate meta-analyses were conducted for entry into care and retention in care (having multiple HIV medical visits during specified assessment intervals) stratified by methodological variables. All analyses used random-effects models.
Overall, 69% [95% confidence interval (CI) 66-71%, N = 53 323, 28 findings] of HIV-diagnosed persons in the United States entered HIV medical care averaged across time intervals in the studies. Seventy-two percent (95% CI 67-77%, N = 6586, 12 findings) entered care within 4 months of diagnosis. Seventy-six percent (95% CI 66-84%, N = 561, 15 findings) entered care after testing HIV-positive in emergency/urgent care departments and 67% (95% CI 64-70%, N = 52 762, 13 findings) entered care when testing was done in community locations. With respect to retention in care, 59% (95% CI 53-65%, N = 75 655, 28 findings) had multiple HIV medical care visits averaged across assessment intervals of 6 months to 3-5 years. Retention was lower during longer assessment intervals.
Entry and retention in HIV medical care in the United States are moderately high. Improvement in both outcomes will increase the success of a test and treat strategy.
AIDS (London, England) 11/2010; 24(17):2665-78. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0b013e32833f4b1b · 5.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapid changes in HIV treatment guidelines and antiretroviral therapy drug safety data add to the increasing complexity of caring for HIV-infected patients and amplify the need for continuous quality monitoring. The authors created an electronic HIV database of 642 patients who received care in the infectious disease (ID) and general medicine clinics in their academic center to monitor HIV clinical performance indicators. The main outcome measures of the study include process measures, including a description of how the database was constructed, and clinical outcomes, including HIV-specific quality improvement (QI) measures and primary care (PC) measures. Performance on HIV-specific QI measures was very high, but drug toxicity monitoring and PC-specific QI performance were deficient, particularly among ID specialists. Establishment of HIV QI data benchmarks as well as standards for how data will be measured and collected are needed and are the logical counterpart to treatment guidelines.
American Journal of Medical Quality 02/2012; 27(4):321-8. DOI:10.1177/1062860611425714 · 1.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The AIDS Education and Training Centers National Evaluation Center led collaborative research to evaluate whether Minority AIDS Initiative (MAI)-funded clinical training changes clinical practice. Chart abstraction and feedback (34 clinics; n = 530) were used to assess adherence to clinical practice guidelines, identify training needs, and assess change in clinical practice (14 clinics, n = 271). Generalized estimating equations were used to account for repeated measures within each clinic. At baseline, clinics displayed 49% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 44-53) adherence to clinical practice guidelines. After feedback associated with the baseline chart review and subsequent implementation of MAI-funded clinical training, an 11% increase (95% CI = 7-16) in adherence to clinical practice guidelines was observed. MAI-funded clinical training was associated with increased adherence to clinical practice guidelines for HIV care. Chart abstraction is useful to assess clinical practice, facilitate conversations about quality improvement, and evaluate the effectiveness of clinical training.
American Journal of Medical Quality 08/2012; 28(2). DOI:10.1177/1062860612453756 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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