A review of the current use of rituximab in autoimmune diseases
ABSTRACT Rituximab is a human/murine chimeric monoclonal antibody primarily used for treating non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma. Recently it has also been used in the treatment of several autoimmune diseases. A literature review was conducted to determine the efficacy of rituximab in the treatment of some of these autoimmune diseases. Multiple mechanisms proposed for the rituximab mediated B cell depletion are also discussed. The efficacy of rituximab is well-established and it is FDA approved for treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis. In this review, data on the use of rituximab is presented from 92 studies involving 1197 patients with the following diseases: systemic lupus erythematosus, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis, Grave's disease, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, pemphigus vulgaris, hemophilia A, cold agglutinin disease, Sjogren's syndrome, graft vs. host disease, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, cryoglobulinemia, IgM mediated neuropathy, multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, idiopathic membranous nephropathy, dermatomyositis, and opsoclonus myoclonus. The efficacy varies among different autoimmune diseases. The cumulative data would suggest that in the vast majority of studies in this review, RTX has a beneficial role in their treatment. While rituximab is very effective in the depletion of B cells, current research suggests it may also influence other cells of the immune system by re-establishing immune homeostasis and tolerance. The safety profile of RTX reveals that most reactions are infusion related. In patients with autoimmune diseases the incidence of serious and severe side effects is low. Systemic infection still remains a major concern and may result in death.
- SourceAvailable from: Said A. Al-Busafi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Auto-immune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic progressive hepatitis of unknown aetiology whose clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic to fulminant hepatic failure. Corticosteroids and azathioprine, which are considered standard therapy for AIH, may, however, be associated with treatment failures and toxicities. Among the alternative medications under investigation, rituximab, used to treat successfully various auto-immune disorders, has fewer side effects. We report herein the case of a 68-year-old woman who developed AIH with worsening clinical, laboratory and histological features despite high-dose prednisone. On rituximab, the patient showed rapid and dramatic clinical improvement, suggesting a therapeutic role for this medication in severe AIH. Indeed, prospective controlled studies are needed to assess and validate this role.Arab Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2013; 14(3):135-8. DOI:10.1016/j.ajg.2013.08.009
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ABSTRACT: The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, rituximab, provides a significant therapeutic benefit for patients with B-cell disorders. However, response to therapy varies and relapses are common, so an understanding of both inherited and acquired rituximab resistance is needed. In order to identify mechanisms of inherited resistance, sensitive versus resistant individuals were selected from a survey of 92 immortalized lymphoblastoid B-cell lines from normal individuals. Levels of CD20 protein and surface expression were lower in the resistant group. In contrast, CD20 mRNA levels were not correlated with susceptibility, suggesting regulation at a post-transcriptional level. To examine acquired resistance, resistant sublines were selected from both lymphoblastoid as well as lymphoma cell lines. Confirming previous findings, there was significant down-regulation of CD20 protein expression in all the resistant sublines. CD20 mRNA splice variants are reported to be associated with development of resistance. Three splice variants were observed in our cell lines, each lacking the binding epitope for rituximab, but none were associated with rituximab resistance. The second generation anti-CD20 mAb, ofatumumab, was more active compared with rituximab in vitro in the survey of all B-cell lines, mirroring results that have been reported previously with malignant B-cells. These studies show that normal B-lymphoblastoid cell lines can be used to model both innate and acquired mechanisms of resistance. They validate the important role of CD20 expression and enable future genetic studies to identify additional mediators of anti-CD20 mAb resistance.02/2013; 1:e31. DOI:10.7717/peerj.31
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ABSTRACT: B cell development requires tight regulation to allow for the generation of a diverse repertoire while preventing the development of autoreactive cells. We report, using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)–induced mutagenesis, the identification of a mutant mouse (chompB) with a block in early B cell development. The blockade occurs after the transitional 1 (T1) stage and leads to a decrease in mature B cell subsets and deficits in T cell–dependent antibody responses. Additionally, chompB mice have decreases in myeloid dendritic cells (DCs). The mutation was mapped to the intramembrane protease signal peptide peptidase-like 2a (Sppl2a), a gene not previously implicated in immune cell development. Proteomic analysis identified the invariant chain (CD74) as a key substrate of Sppl2a and suggests that regulated intramembrane proteolysis of CD74 by Sppl2a contributes to B cell and DC survival. Moreover, these data suggest that modulation of Sppl2a may be a useful therapeutic strategy for treatment of B cell dependent autoimmune disorders.Journal of Experimental Medicine 01/2013; 210(1):23-30. DOI:10.1084/jem.20121072 · 13.91 Impact Factor