Light and temperature regulation of greening in dark-grown ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba).
ABSTRACT The last steps of chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis were studied at different light intensities and temperatures in dark-germinated ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) seedlings. Pigment contents and 77 K fluorescence emission spectra were measured and the plastid ultrastructure was analysed. All dark-grown organs contained protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) forms with similar spectral properties to those of dark-grown angiosperm seedlings, but the ratios of these forms to each other were different. The short-wavelength, monomeric Pchlide forms were always dominating. Etioplasts with small prolamellar bodies (PLBs) and few prothylakoids (PTs) differentiated in the dark-grown stems. Upon illumination with high light intensities (800 micromol m(-2) s(-1) photon flux density, PFD), photo-oxidation and bleaching occurred in the stems and the presence of (1)O(2) was detected. When Chl accumulated in plants illuminated with 15 micromol m(-2) s(-1) PFD it was significantly slower at 10 degrees C than at 20 degrees C. At room temperature, the transformation of etioplasts into young chloroplasts was observed at low light, while it was delayed at 10 degrees C. Grana did not appear in the plastids even after 48 h of greening at 20 degrees C. Reaccumulation of Pchlide forms and re-formation of PLBs occurred when etiolated samples were illuminated with 200 micromol m(-2) s(-1) PFD at room temperature for 24 h and were then re-etiolated for 5 days. The Pchlide forms appeared during re-etiolation had similar spectral properties to those of etiolated seedlings. These results show that ginkgo seedlings are very sensitive to temperature and light conditions during their greening, a fact that should be considered for ginkgo cultivation.
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ABSTRACT: The reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) is a key regulatory step in the biosynthesis of chlorophyll in phototrophic organisms. Two distinct enzymes catalyze this reduction; a light-dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) and light-independent Pchlide reductase (DPOR). Both enzymes are widely distributed among phototrophic organisms with the exception that only POR is found in angiosperms and only DPOR in anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. Consequently, angiosperms become etiolated in the absence of light, since the reduction of Pchlide in angiosperms is solely dependent on POR. In eukaryotic phototrophs, POR is a nuclear-encoded single polypeptide and post-translationally imported into plastids. POR possesses unique features, its light-dependent catalytic activity, accumulation in plastids of dark-grown angiosperms (etioplasts) via binding to its substrate, Pchlide, and cofactor, NADPH, resulting in the formation of prolamellar bodies (PLBs), and rapid degradation after catalysis under subsequent illumination. During the last decade, considerable progress has been made in the study of the gene organization, catalytic mechanism, membrane association, regulation of the gene expression, and physiological function of POR. In this review, we provide a brief overview of DPOR and then summarize the current state of knowledge on the biochemistry and molecular biology of POR mainly in angiosperms. The physiological and evolutional implications of POR are also discussed.Photosynthesis Research 02/2004; 81(1):1-29. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cuttings of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay) were dark-forced at least three weeks. Pigment contents, 77 K fluorescence emission, excitation spectra of the leaves, petioles, stems, transmission electron micrographs of the etioplasts from leaves, the chlorenchyma tissues of the stems were analysed. The dark-grown leaves, stems contained 8 to 10, 3 to 5 mug/g fresh weight protochlorophyllide, its esters, respectively. HPLC analysis showed that the molar ratio of the unesterified, esterified pigments was 7:3 in the shoot developed in darkness. The dark-forced leaves contained carotenoids identified as: neoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, lutein, beta-carotene. Detailed analyses of the fluorescence spectra proved that all tissues of the dark-forced shoots had protochlorophyllide or protochlorophyll forms with emission maxima at 628, 636, 644, 655, 669 nm. The 628, 636 nm emitting forms were present in all parts of the dark-forced shoot, but dominated in the stems, which may indicate an organ specificity of the etioplast development. Variations in the distribution of the pigment forms were even found in the different tissues of the stem. The subepidermal layers were more abundant in the 655 nm form than the parenchyma cells of the inner part of the cortex, the pith. In the latter cells, the plastid differentiation stopped in intermediary stages between proplastids, etioplasts. The plastids in the subepidermal layers had developed prolamellar body structures, which were similar to those of etiolated leaves. The results highlight the importance of organ-, tissue specificity of plastid differentiation for chlorophyll biosynthesis, greening of different plant organs.Photosynthesis Research 02/2004; 82(2):141-50. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An accompanying paper reports the accumulation of photoactive protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) in the innermost leaf primordia of buds of many tree species. In this paper, we describe plastid differentiation, changes in pigment concentrations and spectral properties of bud scales and leaf primordia of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) from January until the end of bud break in April. The bud scales contained plastids with grana, stroma thylakoids characteristic of chloroplasts and large dense bodies within the stroma. In January, proplastids and young chloroplasts were present in the leaf primordia, and the fluorescence spectra of the primordia were similar to those of green leaves except for a minor band at 630 nm, indicative of a protochlorophyll(ide). During bud break, the pigment concentrations of the green bud scales and the outermost leaf primordia increased, and Pchlide forms with emission maxima at 633, 644 and 655 nm accumulated in the middle and innermost leaf primordia. Depending on the position of the leaf primordia within the bud, their plastids and their pigment concentrations varied. Etio-chloroplasts with prolamellar bodies (PLBs) and prothylakoids with developing grana were observed in the innermost leaves. Besides the above-mentioned Pchlide forms, the middle and innnermost leaf primordia contained only a Chl band with an emission maximum at 686 nm. The outermost leaf primordia contained etio-chloroplasts with well-developed grana and small, narrow-type PLBs. These outermost leaves contained only chlorophyll forms like the mature green leaves. No Pchlide accumulation was observed after bud break, indicating that etiolation of the innermost and middle leaves is transient. The Pchlide forms and the plastid types of the primordia in buds grown in nature were similar to those of leaves of dark-germinated seedlings and to those of the leaf primordia of dark-forced buds. We conclude that transient etiolation occurs under natural conditions. The formation of PLBs and etio-chloroplasts and the accumulation of the light-dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase are involved in the natural greening process and ontogenesis of young leaf primordia of horse chestnut buds.Tree Physiology 09/2006; 26(8):1087-96. · 2.85 Impact Factor