Validation of Overweight Children's Fruit and Vegetable Intake Using Plasma Carotenoids

School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia.
Obesity (Impact Factor: 3.73). 11/2008; 17(1):162-8. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2008.495
Source: PubMed


Assessing dietary intake in children is difficult and limited validated tools exist. Plasma carotenoids are nutritional biomarkers of fruit and vegetable intake and therefore suitable to validate reported dietary intakes. The aim of this study was to examine the comparative validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), completed by parents reporting child fruit and vegetable intake compared to plasma carotenoid concentrations. A sample of children aged 5-12 years (n = 93) from a range of weight categories were assessed. Dietary intake was measured using a 137-item semi-quantitative FFQ. Plasma carotenoids were measured using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Pearson correlation coefficients between reported dietary intake of carotenoids and plasma carotenoid concentrations were strongest after adjustment for BMI (beta-carotene (r = 0.56, P < 0.05), alpha-carotene (r = 0.51, P < 0.001), cryptoxanthin (r = 0.32, P < 0.001)). Significantly lower levels (P < 0.05) of all plasma carotenoids, except lutein, were found among overweight and obese children when compared to healthy weight children. Parental report of children's carotenoid intakes, using a FFQ can be used to provide a relative validation of fruit and vegetable intake. The lower plasma carotenoid concentrations found in overweight and obese children requires further investigation.

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Available from: Manohar Garg, Sep 23, 2014
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    • "Plasma carotenoids were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography according to the method established by Barua and colleagues and previously described (Figure 1) [50,51]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The consumption of foods rich in carotenoids that possess significant antioxidant and inflammatory modulating properties has been linked to reduced risk of neuropathology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between plasma carotenoid concentrations and plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) in an essentially healthy human cohort. Methods Thirty-eight matched CSF and plasma samples were collected from consenting participants who required a spinal tap for the administration of anaesthetic. Plasma concentrations of carotenoids and both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of NAD(H) and markers of inflammation (IL-6, TNF-α) and oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes, 8-OHdG and total antioxidant capacity) were quantified. Results The average age of participants was 53 years (SD = 20, interquartile range = 38). Both α-carotene (P = 0.01) and β-carotene (P < 0.001) correlated positively with plasma total antioxidant capacity. A positive correlation was observed between α-carotene and CSF TNF-α levels (P = 0.02). β-cryptoxanthin (P = 0.04) and lycopene (P = 0.02) inversely correlated with CSF and plasma IL-6 respectively. A positive correlation was also observed between lycopene and both plasma (P < 0.001) and CSF (P < 0.01) [NAD(H)]. Surprisingly no statistically significant associations were found between the most abundant carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin and either plasma or CSF markers of oxidative stress. Conclusion Together these findings suggest that consumption of carotenoids may modulate inflammation and enhance antioxidant defences within both the central nervous system (CNS) and systemic circulation. Increased levels of lycopene also appear to moderate decline in the essential pyridine nucleotide [NAD(H)] in both the plasma and the CSF.
    Journal of Neuroinflammation 07/2014; 11(1):117. DOI:10.1186/1742-2094-11-117 · 5.41 Impact Factor
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    • "Notably, dietary intakes of lutein estimated as the average of two 24 h recalls for the latter US girls and boys was 345 (sd 491) µg/d( 22 ), and 2446 (sd 1154) µg/d among the Australian children estimated using an FFQ( 23 ), are also consistent with the considerable discrepancy in lutein intake estimated using an FFQ compared with dietary recall in the present study (Table 2). Although all plasma lutein must originate from the diet, previous studies on the strength of the correlation between lutein intake and plasma lutein range from no significant association( 22 , 23 ) to correlations ranging from 0·1 to 0·34( 17 – 20 ) to as high as r 0·76 (P < 0·0001)( 21 ). Using log-transformed data for dietary lutein intake derived from the average of three 24 h records collected over a 14 d period, we show that differences in lutein intake as µg/d or µg/4184 kJ accounted for almost 25 % of the variability in plasma lutein among the children (r 0·479, P < 0·001; r 0·490, P < 0·001, respectively). "
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    ABSTRACT: Lutein and zeaxanthin are xanthophyll carotenoids present in highly pigmented vegetables and fruits. Lutein is selectively accumulated in the brain relative to other carotenoids. Recent evidence has linked lutein to cognition in older adults, but little is known about lutein in young children, despite structural brain development. We determined lutein intake using FFQ, one 24 h recall and three 24 h recalls, plasma lutein concentrations and their association with cognition in 160 children 5·6-5·9 years of age, at low risk for neurodevelopmental delay. Plasma lutein was skewed, with a median of 0·23 (2·5th to 95th percentile range 0·11-0·53) µmol/l. Plasma lutein showed a higher correlation with lutein intake estimated as the average of three 24 h recalls (r 0·479; P = 0·001), rather than one 24 h recall (r 0·242; P = 0·003) or FFQ (r 0·316; P = 0·001). The median lutein intake was 697 (2·5th to 95th percentile range 178-5287) µg/d based on three 24 h recalls. Lutein intake was inversely associated with SFA intake, but dietary fat or SFA intakes were not associated with plasma lutein. No associations were found between plasma lutein or lutein intake and any measure of cognition. While subtle independent effects of lutein on child cognition are possible, separating these effects from covariates making an impact on both child diet and cognition may be difficult.
    05/2014; 3:e11. DOI:10.1017/jns.2014.10
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    • "Dietary intake was measured using the Australian Child and Adolescent Eating Survey (ACAES), a 135-item semi-quantitative FFQ with 120 food items and 15 supplementary questions addressing age, food behaviours and hours spent in sedentary behaviour. ACAES had been previously evaluated for reliability and relative validity and demonstrated acceptable accuracy for ranking nutrient intakes in Australian youth aged nine to 16 years [28-30]. Portion sizes for individual food items were accessed from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) [31] and unpublished data from the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey or the “natural” serving size for common items such as a slice of bread. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Diet quality tools have been developed to assess the adequacy of dietary patterns for predicting future morbidity and mortality. This study describes the development and evaluation of a brief food-based diet quality index for use with children at the individual or population level. The Australian Child and Adolescent Recommended Food Score (ACARFS) was developed to reflect adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents in Australia and modelled on the approach of the US Recommended Food Score. Methods The ACARFS has eight sub-scales and is scored from zero to 73. The diet quality score was evaluated by assessing correlation (Spearman’s correlations) and agreement (weighted κ statistics) between ACARFS scores and nutrient intakes, derived from a food frequency questionnaire in 691 children (mean age 11.0, SD 1.1) in New South Wales, Australia. Nutrient intakes for ACARFS quartiles were compared with the relevant Australian nutrient reference values. Results ACARFS showed slight to substantial agreement (κ 0.13-0.64) with nutrient intakes, with statistically significant moderate to strong positive correlations with all vitamins, minerals and energy intake (r = 0.42-0.70). ACARFS was not related to BMI.Participants who scored less than the median ACARFS were more likely to have sub-optimal intakes of fibre, folic acid and calcium. Conclusion ACARFS demonstrated sufficient accuracy for use in future studies evaluating diet quality. Future research on its utility in targeting improvements in the nutritional quality of usual eating habits of children and adolescents is warranted.
    Nutrition Journal 11/2012; 11(1):96. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-11-96 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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