Effect of racial differences on ability to afford prescription medications

American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Research and Education Foundation, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA.
American journal of health-system pharmacy: AJHP: official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (Impact Factor: 1.88). 11/2008; 65(22):2137-43. DOI: 10.2146/ajhp080062
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The association of race with not filling prescription medications because of cost for African-American and white patients 65 years or older was examined.
African-American and white patients age 65 years or older were recruited from the practices of 48 Alabama primary care physicians participating in the Alabama Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drug Patient Safety Study. All eligible patients were asked questions related to their ability to pay for prescription medications, comorbidities, insurance status, and socioeconomic status. Baseline and follow-up telephone surveys were completed between August 2005 and April 2006. Mediation analysis was conducted to determine whether patients' perceived income inadequacy mediated the association between race and not filling medications using staged logistic regression models and adjusting for age, comorbidities, and traditional markers of socioeconomic position (income, education, and insurance status).
Of 399 participants, 32% were African-American, 74% were women, and 53% had an annual household income of <$15,000. Patients not filling prescription medications were more likely to be African-American (50% versus 25%) and to report inadequate income to meet basic needs (61% versus 17%) (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). After adjusting for all covariates except the mediator, the odds ratio (OR) for African Americans not filling a prescription medication was 2.3 when compared with white patients. Adding the mediator (perceived income inadequacy) to the model reduced the OR to 1.4.
African Americans reported markedly greater difficulty in affording prescription medications than did white patients, even after accounting for income, education, health insurance status, and comorbidities. The inability of African Americans to afford prescription medications may be better predicted by perceived income inadequacy than more traditional measures of socioeconomic status.

13 Reads
  • Source
    • "Thus depending on patterns of consumption, exposure concentrations may vary considerably within a population. Extensive data link socioeconomic factors to variation in personal behaviors, and habits, most notably including: diet (Deshmukh-Taskar et al., 2007; Robinson et al., 2004) and consumption of medicine (Cobaugh et al., 2008), by extension, it is plausible that socioeconomic factors may be associated with variation in phthalate exposure. The connection between socioeconomic factors and diet is particularly important because the major route of exposure to DEHP and to a lesser extent DBP is believed to be through food (Colacino et al., 2010), so exposure may be strongly influenced by consumption of various food items (Colacino et al., 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Relatively little is known about the socioeconomic correlates of phthalate metabolite urine concentrations among the general population, exposures of increasing public health concern, particularly for women of reproductive age. We pooled data from the 2001-2008 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to examine the associations between phthalate metabolite concentrations (including the molar sum of four di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites, the molar sum of two dibutyl phthalate (DBP) metabolites, and metabolites of benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP)) with socioeconomic indicators (including ethnicity, education, income, and food security status) among women 20 to 39 years age. We also derived a socioeconomic status summary measure using factor analysis and investigated its associations with metabolite concentrations. In fully adjusted models, the lowest quartile of overall socioeconomic status was associated with 1.83 (95% CI=1.54-2.17) times the concentrations of mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and 0.72 (95% CI=0.54-0.98) times the concentrations of (molar sum) DEHP metabolites compared with the highest quartile of overall socioeconomic status. This latter association was driven primarily by educational attainment. All Non-White ethnicities combined had 1.24 (95% CI=1.09-1.40) times the concentrations of (molar sum) DBP metabolites, 1.32 (95% CI=1.12-1.56) times the mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations, and 0.82 (95% CI=0.71-0.96) the concentrations of MBzP of Non-Hispanic Whites. Biomarkers of phthalate exposure vary with socioeconomic factors in women of reproductive age in the United States. Given the public health concern surrounding phthalate exposure, more research is needed to elucidate the reasons for these differences.
    Environmental Research 04/2012; 115:11-7. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2012.03.008 · 4.37 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Cross-sectional secondary data from the follow-up phase of the Alabama NSAID Patient Safety Study (2006) were used to assess the potential relationships among physician counseling, pharmacist counseling, patient reading of WMI, and patient NSAID risk awareness while controlling for potentially influential background characteristics. The parent project (i.e., Alabama NSAID Patient Safety Study) was approved by the University of Alabama at Birmingham Institutional Review Board and described in detail elsewhere [29] "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess potential associations among physician counseling, pharmacist counseling, written medicine information (WMI) and patient awareness of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) risks. Three-hundred and eighty-two older, white and African American patients prescribed NSAIDs were surveyed regarding their NSAID risk awareness defined as an index score ranging from zero to four correctly identified risks (i.e., gastrointestinal bleeding, heart attack, hypertension, and kidney disease). Associations among NSAID risk awareness and patient-reported physician counseling, pharmacist counseling, and reading of WMI were evaluated in multivariable ordered logistic regression models and confirmed using path analysis. Physician counseling was positively associated with reading WMI (p<0.001) and NSAID risk awareness (p<0.001). Pharmacist counseling was not associated with reading WMI (p=0.622) and neither pharmacist counseling (p=0.366) nor reading WMI (p=0.916) was associated with NSAID risk awareness. Physicians play a prominent role in facilitating NSAID risk awareness whereas pharmacist counseling and WMI may have limited impact. The lack of significant associations among pharmacist counseling and reading WMI with NSAID risk awareness suggests a missed opportunity to improve patient understanding. There is a need for coordinated and effective strategies to communicate risk information among physicians and pharmacists and to better integrate WMI into this process.
    Patient Education and Counseling 12/2010; 83(3):391-7. DOI:10.1016/j.pec.2010.10.032 · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To examine the prevalence of patient-pharmacy staff communication about medications for pain and arthritis and to assess disparities in communication by demographic, socioeconomic, and health indicators. Descriptive, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study. Alabama between 2005 and 2007. 687 Patients participating in the Alabama NSAID Patient Safety Study (age >or=50 years and currently taking a prescription nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug [NSAID]). Not applicable. Communication with pharmacy staff about prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) NSAIDs was examined before and after adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, and health indicators. For the entire cohort (n = 687), mean (+/-SD) age was 68.3 +/- 10.0 years, 72.8% were women, 36.4% were black, and 31.2% discussed use of prescription pain/arthritis medications with pharmacy staff. Discussing use of prescription pain/arthritis medications with pharmacy staff differed by race/gender (P < 0.001): white men (40.3%), white women (34.6%), black men (30.2%), and black women (19.8%). Even after multivariable adjustment, black women had the lowest odds of discussing their medications with pharmacy staff (odds ratio 0.40 [95% CI 0.24-0.56]) compared with white men. For the 63.0% of participants with recently overlapping prescription and OTC NSAID use, communication with pharmacy staff about OTC NSAIDs use was only 13.7% and did not vary significantly by race/gender group. Given the complex risks and benefits of chronic NSAID use, pharmacists, pharmacy staff, and patients all are missing an important opportunity to avoid unsafe prescribing and decrease medication adverse events.
    Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 09/2009; 49(5):e110-7. DOI:10.1331/JAPhA.2009.09005 · 1.24 Impact Factor
Show more