T lymphocytes potentiate endogenous neuroprotective inflammation in a mouse model of ALS

Department of Pathology, Immune Disease Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 12/2008; 105(46):17913-8. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0804610105
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset, progressive, motor neuron degenerative disease, in which the role of inflammation is not well established. Innate and adaptive immunity were investigated in the CNS of the Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1)(G93A) transgenic mouse model of ALS. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells infiltrated SOD1(G93A) spinal cords during disease progression. Cell-specific flow cytometry and gene expression profiling showed significant phenotypic changes in microglia, including dendritic cell receptor acquisition, and expression of genes linked to neuroprotection, cholesterol metabolism and tissue remodeling. Microglia dramatically up-regulated IGF-1 and down-regulated IL-6 expression. When mutant SOD1 mice were bred onto a TCRbeta deficient background, disease progression was significantly accelerated at the symptomatic stage. In addition, microglia reactivity and IGF-1 levels were reduced in spinal cords of SOD1(G93A) (TCRbeta-/-) mice. These results indicate that T cells play an endogenous neuroprotective role in ALS by modulating a beneficial inflammatory response to neuronal injury.

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    ABSTRACT: Inappropriate T cell responses in the central nervous system (CNS) affect the pathogenesis of a broad range of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders that include, but are not limited to, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. On the one hand immune responses can exacerbate neurotoxic responses; while on the other hand, they can lead to neuroprotective outcomes. The temporal and spatial mechanisms by which these immune responses occur and are regulated in the setting of active disease have gained significant recent attention. Spatially, immune responses that affect neurodegeneration may occur within or outside the CNS. Migration of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells from the periphery to the CNS and consequent immune cell interactions with resident glial cells affect neuroinflammation and neuronal survival. The destructive or protective mechanisms of these interactions are linked to the relative numerical and functional dominance of effector or regulatory T cells. Temporally, immune responses at disease onset or during progression may exhibit a differential balance of immune responses in the periphery and within the CNS. Immune responses with predominate T cell subtypes may differentially manifest migratory, regulatory and effector functions when triggered by endogenous misfolded and aggregated proteins and cell-specific stimuli. The final result is altered glial and neuronal behaviors that influence the disease course. Thus, discovery of neurodestructive and neuroprotective immune mechanisms will permit potential new therapeutic pathways that affect neuronal survival and slow disease progression.
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    ABSTRACT: Frontiers is more than just an open-access publisher of scholarly articles: it is a pioneering approach to the world of academia, radically improving the way scholarly research is managed. The grand vision of Frontiers is a world where all people have an equal opportunity to seek, share and generate knowledge. Frontiers provides immediate and permanent online open access to all its publications, but this alone is not enough to realize our grand goals. FRONTIERS JOURNAL SERIES The Frontiers Journal Series is a multi-tier and interdisciplinary set of open-access, online journals, promising a paradigm shift from the current review, selection and dissemination processes in academic publishing. All Frontiers journals are driven by researchers for researchers; therefore, they constitute a service to the scholarly community. At the same time, the Frontiers Journal Series operates on a revolutionary invention, the tiered publishing system, initially addressing specific communities of scholars, and gradually climbing up to broader public understanding, thus serving the interests of the lay society, too. DEDICATION TO QUALITY
    Edited by Frontiers in Psychiatry, 02/2015; Frontiers in Psychiatry., ISBN: 978-2-88919-308-0
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of motor neurons and accompanied by accumulation of misfolded SOD1 onto the cytoplasmic faces of intracellular organelles, including mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Using inhibition of misfolded SOD1 deposition onto mitochondria as an assay, a chaperone activity abundant in nonneuronal tissues is now purified and identified to be the multifunctional macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), whose activities include an ATP-independent protein folding chaperone. Purified MIF is shown to directly inhibit mutant SOD1 misfolding. Elevating MIF in neuronal cells suppresses accumulation of misfolded SOD1 and its association with mitochondria and the ER and extends survival of mutant SOD1-expressing motor neurons. Accumulated MIF protein is identified to be low in motor neurons, implicating correspondingly low chaperone activity as a component of vulnerability to mutant SOD1 misfolding and supporting therapies to enhance intracellular MIF chaperone activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Neuron 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2015.02.034 · 15.77 Impact Factor


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