Trans fatty acids: Effects on cardiometabolic health and implications for policy

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids (Impact Factor: 1.98). 12/2008; 79(3-5):147-52. DOI: 10.1016/j.plefa.2008.09.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In both developed and developing countries, trans fatty acids (TFA) are largely consumed from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. This article focuses on TFA as a modifiable dietary risk factor for cardiovascular disease, reviewing the evidence for lipid and non-lipid effects; the relations of trans fat intake with clinical endpoints; and current policy and legislative issues. In both observational cohort studies and randomized clinical trials, TFA adversely affect lipid profiles (including raising LDL and triglyceride levels, and reducing HDL levels), systemic inflammation, and endothelial function. More limited but growing evidence suggests that TFA also exacerbate visceral adiposity and insulin resistance. These potent effects of TFA on a multitude of cardiovascular risk factors are consistent with the strong associations seen in prospective cohort studies between TFA consumption and risk of myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease (CHD) death. The documented harmful effects of TFA along with the feasibility of substituting partially hydrogenated vegetable oils with healthy alternatives indicate little reason for continued presence of industrially produced TFA in food preparation and manufacturing or in home cooking fats/oils. A comprehensive strategy to eliminate the use of industrial TFA in both developed and developing countries, including education, food labeling, and policy and legislative initiatives, would likely prevent tens of thousands of CHD events worldwide each year.

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Available from: Renata Micha, Apr 27, 2014
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    • "However, it is well established that, in human health, the consumption of TFAs is harmful and affects lipid metabolism, endothelial function, cardiovascular disease development and insulin resistance. In particular, the intake of TFAs can increase LDLcholesterol , oxidative stress and the production of inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-α and C-reactive protein), as well as decrease HDL-cholesterol [75] [78] [79]. Studies have suggested that the fetus is exposed to TFAs from the maternal diet after and before birth through TFA transfer across the placenta and TFA secretion in maternal milk [76] [77] [80]. "
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    ABSTRACT: During pregnancy and/or lactation, maternal nutrition is related to the adequate development of the fetus, new-born and future adult, likely by modifications in fetal programming and epigenetic regulation. Fetal programming is characterised by adaptive responses to specific environmental conditions during early life stages, which may alter gene expression and permanently affect the structure and function of several organs and tissues, thus influencing the susceptibility to metabolic disorders. Regarding lipid metabolism during the first two trimesters of pregnancy, the maternal body accumulates fat, whereas in late pregnancy, the lipolytic activity in the maternal adipose tissue is increased. However, an excess or deficiency of certain fatty acids may lead to adverse consequences to the fetuses and new-borns. Fetal exposure to trans fatty acids appears to promote early deleterious effects in the offspring’s health, thereby increasing the individual risk for developing metabolic diseases throughout life. Similarly, the maternal intake of saturated fatty acids seems to trigger alterations in the liver and adipose tissue function associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly long chain PUFA (LC-PUFA-AA, EPA and DHA), play an important and beneficial physiologic role in the offspring who receive this fatty acid during critical periods of development. Therefore, the maternal nutritional condition and fatty acid intake during pregnancy and/or lactation are critical factors that are strongly associated with normal fetal and postnatal development, which influence the modifications in fetal programming and in the individual risk for developing metabolic diseases throughout life.
    The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 10/2014; 26(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2014.10.001 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    • "adiposy, glucose-insulin homeostasis). Each of these tissues is directly related with CVD risk which represents the leading cause of death in nearly all nations (Micha and Mozaffarian 2008). Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are a specific group of different positional and geometric isomers derived from linoleic acid (LA) that can be also formed by heating (Juanéda et al. 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have focused on trans fatty acids (TFA) technologically produced by partial hydrogenation of oils. However, TFA can also be present in fresh oils. For this reason, cis fatty acid (CFA), TFA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) of fresh and heated Aleppo pine seed oil (APSO) at frying temperature (180 °C) were evaluated and correlated with the antioxidant characteristics. Results showed that fresh APSO had a low oleic/linoleic ratio O/L (0.4). Total TFA in fresh APSO reached 1%. The predominant TFA was 18:2 n-6 (t9, t12) in both fresh and heated APSO. Individual TFA increased with significant differences (p < 0.05) with heating time. CLA occurred after 4 h and significantly increased (p < 0.05) accounting 10% of total TFA after 10 h. Total TFA are negatively correlated with α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol (p < 0.05) and carotenoïds (p < 0.01) and positively correlated with remaining DPPH. Oil stability index (OSI) showed significant negative correlation with TFA (r = −0.925; p = 0.008). A principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear discrimination between fresh and heated oils. Temperature, heating time, unsaturation degree and antioxidants are combined factors which significantly affect the isomerization rate and nutritional quality of APSO.
    Journal of Food Science and Technology -Mysore- 08/2014; 51(8). DOI:10.1007/s13197-012-0664-5 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    • "Trans Fatty Acids (TFAs), unsaturated FA with at least one double bond in trans configuration, may also provide a good MS-risk biomarker given the fact that they relay almost exclusively on dietary intake [17] [18] [19] and are known to have adverse effects on serum lipids [20]. TFAs are mostly produced during the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils into semisolid fats in the food industry [8] [20] [21]; however TFAs may also be formed naturally throughout the rumination process, so small amounts of TFAs are present in dairy products and meat [22]. Vaccenic acid, from which conjugated linoleic acid is formed, is the predominant trans-isomer in ruminants [17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The type of fat consumed in the Mexican diet could predispose to the development of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) which has been associated with an increased risk to develop cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our study included adolescents between 12 and 16 years of age, divided in two groups: Control Group (n = 31) and MS Group (n = 44). Waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and HDL-cholesterol were determined. Erythrocytes’ fatty acids methyl esthers were quantified using gas chromatography with ionized flame detector. We identified 16 fatty acids (FA) with chain lengths from C12 to C24, with emphasis in four trans FA (TFA) isomers: vac- cenic (C18:1n7t), elaidic (C18:1n9t), linoelaidic (C18:2n6t), and conjugated linoelaidic acids (C18:2n7t). MS Group had a less proportion of: myristic (C14), palmitoleic (C16:1), C18:1n7t, and linoleic acids (C18:2); and a higher one of C18:1n9t, C18:2n7t, and nervonic acids (C24:1) when compared to the control group. C24:1 and C18:1n9t had a sig- nificant positive association with MS (OR = 14.17 and OR = 12.94, respectively); whereas C14 (OR = 0.14), C18:1n7t (OR = 0.14), and C18:2 (OR = 0.22) appear to have a protective effect against the disease. The proportion of specific FAs in erythrocytes’ membranes differs between adolescents with MS and healthy controls; these FA not only showed a strong association with MS, but also correlated with most of its individual components. Interestingly, TFA displayed an antagonic behavior; while C18:1n9t had a strong association with MS, apparently C18:1n7t confers a protective effect; these results suggest that analyzing each TFA separately will constitute a more accurate approach to determine the role of TFAs in the pathogenesis of MS or other related metabolic disorders.
    Food and Nutrition Sciences 09/2013; DOI:10.4236/fns.2013.49A1009
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