The role of polyomaviruses in human disease.
ABSTRACT The human polyomaviruses, BK virus and JC virus, have long been associated with serious diseases including polyomavirus nephropathy and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Both viruses establish ubiquitous, persistent infections in healthy individuals. Reactivation can occur when the immune system is impaired, leading to disease progression. Recently, the human polyomavirus family has expanded with the identification of three new viruses (KI, WU and Merkel cell polyomavirus), all of which may prove to be involved in human disease. This review describes the general aspects of human polyomavirus infections and pathogenicity. Current topics of investigation and future directions in the field are also discussed.
Article: Hybrid genomes of the polyomaviruses JC virus, BK virus, and simian virus 40: identification of sequences important for efficient transformation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hybrid viral genomes were used to investigate the influence of specific polyomavirus sequences on the transforming behavior of JC virus (JCV). One set of chimeric DNAs was made by exchanging the regulatory regions between JCV and simian virus 40 (SV40) or JCV and BK virus (BKV). A second set of constructs was produced that expressed hybrid JCV-BKV T proteins under the control of either JCV or BKV regulatory signals. Transformation of Rat 2 cells with the parental and chimeric DNAs indicated that both the JCV regulatory signals and the sequence encoding the amino terminus of T protein contributed to the restricted transforming behavior of this virus. Analysis of the viral proteins in the transformed rat cells indicated that the large T antigens of JCV and BKV were less stable than their SV40 counterpart, that small t protein was produced in JCV transformants, and that the subpopulation of T antigen that forms a stable complex with cellular p53 protein was smaller in JCV-transformed cells than in SV40- or BKV-transformed cells.Journal of Virology 03/1989; 63(2):863-72. · 5.40 Impact Factor
Article: Interplay of cellular and humoral immune responses against BK virus in kidney transplant recipients with polyomavirus nephropathy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Reactivation of the polyomavirus BK (BKV) causes polyomavirus nephropathy (PVN) in kidney transplant (KTx) recipients and may lead to loss of the renal allograft. We have identified two HLA-A*0201-restricted nine-amino-acid cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes of the BKV major capsid protein VP1, VP1(p44), and VP1(p108). Using tetramer staining assays, we showed that these epitopes were recognized by CTLs in 8 of 10 (VP1(p44)) and 5 of 10 (VP1(p108)) HLA-A*0201+ healthy individuals, while both epitopes elicited a CTL response in 10 of 10 KTx recipients with biopsy-proven PVN, although at variable levels. After in vitro stimulation with the respective peptides, CTLs directed against VP1(p44) were more abundant than against VP1(p108) in most healthy individuals, while the converse was true in KTx recipients with PVN, suggesting a shift in epitope immunodominance in the setting of active BKV infection. A strong CTL response in KTx recipients with PVN appeared to be associated with decreased BK viral load in blood and urine and low anti-BKV antibody titers, while a low or undetectable CTL response correlated with viral persistence and high anti-BKV antibody titers. These results suggest that this cellular immune response is present in most BKV-seropositive healthy individuals and plays an important role in the containment of BKV in KTx recipients with PVN. Interestingly, the BKV CTL epitopes bear striking homology with the recently described CTL epitopes of the other human polyomavirus JC (JCV), JCV VP1(p36) and VP1(p100). A high degree of epitope cross-recognition was present between BKV and corresponding JCV-specific CTLs, which indicates that the same population of cells is functionally effective against these two closely related viruses.Journal of Virology 05/2006; 80(7):3495-505. · 5.40 Impact Factor
Article: No evidence for an association between infections with WU and KI polyomaviruses and respiratory disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: WU virus (WUV) and KI polyomavirus (KIPyV) are newly discovered related human polyomaviruses detected in respiratory samples. To investigate their potential role in respiratory disease, we determined their frequencies of detection, clinical presentations and epidemiological characteristics among samples referred for diagnostic respiratory virus testing. Anonymised samples and accompanying study subject information were obtained from the Edinburgh respiratory specimen archive. Samples were screened by nested PCR using two sets of primers conserved between WUV and KIPyV, as well for other respiratory viruses (respiratory syncytial virus [RSV], adenoviruses [AdV], influenza A/B and parainfluenza viruses 1-3, human bocavirus, B19). WUV and KIPyV were detected in 10 and 14 samples, respectively from 983 specimens (from 9 to 10 different individuals from 612 study subjects). Infections occurred in two types of study subject; those who were young (<2 years) with lower respiratory tract infections (n=8), and almost invariably co-infected with other respiratory viruses (RSV, AdV), and a second, generally older group either without respiratory disease (n=6) or with mild upper respiratory tract infections (n=5) but who were generally clinically severely immunosuppressed from leukaemia or transplant therapy. Findings from either group do not support an aetiological link between infection with WUV or KIPyV and respiratory disease.Journal of Clinical Virology 12/2007; 40(4):307-11. · 3.97 Impact Factor