Risk Factors for Diagnostic Delay in Acute Aortic Dissection
ABSTRACT In acute aortic dissection (AAD), timely diagnosis is challenging. However, dedicated studies of the entity and determinants of delay are currently lacking. We surveyed pre-/in-hospital time to diagnosis and explored risk factors for diagnostic delay. We analyzed the dedicated database of a metropolitan AAD network (161 patients diagnosed since 1996; 115 Stanford type A) in terms of hospital arrival times (from pain to presentation at any hospital) and in-hospital diagnostic times (presentation to final diagnosis). Median (interquartile range) in-hospital diagnostic times were approximately twofold greater than hospital arrival times (177 minutes, 644, vs 75 minutes, 124, p = 0.0001, Wilcoxon test). Median annual in-hospital diagnostic times were most often approximately 3 hours (spread was wide, but decreased after 2001; rho = -0.94, p = 0.005). Risk factors (univariate analysis) for in-hospital diagnostic time >75th percentile (12 hours) included pleural effusion (odds ratio 3.96, 95% confidence interval 1.80 to 8.69), dyspneic presentation (odds ratio 3.33, 95% confidence interval 1.93 to 8.59), and age <70 years (odds ratio 2.34, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 5.36). Systolic arterial pressure < or =105 mm Hg decreased the likelihood of lengthy diagnosis (odds ratio 0.08, 95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.59). In patients (n = 82) with routine values (since 2000), troponin positivity (odds ratio 3.63, 95% confidence interval 1.12 to 11.84) and an acute coronary syndrome-like electrocardiogram (odds ratio 2.88, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 8.17) were also risk factors. In conclusion, in a metropolitan setting, most of the diagnostic delay may occur in hospital. At presentation, pleural effusion, troponin positivity, acute coronary syndrome-like electrocardiogram, and dyspnea are possible "clinical confounders" associated with particularly long in-hospital diagnostic times.
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ABSTRACT: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) assay is used in the diagnosis and risk assessment of patients with symptoms of myocardial infarction. This study was undertaken to establish an age-specific 99th percentile cutoff value for hs-cTnT in Chinese population, and to evaluate its potential for early prediction of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in middle-aged patients. Troponin T levels in blood obtained from healthy Chinese adults were assayed using hs-cTnT. The distribution was plotted and 99th percentiles were determined by nonparametric statistics. Prediction performance at the conventional cutoff (14 ng/L) recommended by the Roche company was compared with the age-specific cutoff for NSTEMI in 100 middle-aged patients (40-60 years of age) with acute chest pain. The 99th percentile for hs-cTnT was 14 ng/L for patients ≥60 years of age and 11 ng/L for those <60. Fifty of the 100 patients were finally diagnosed with NSTEMI. The age-specific 99th percentile cutoff value of 11 ng/L identified a higher number of patients with NSTEMI than the conventional 14 ng/L cutoff (46 vs. 40 patients), although the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.084). In addition, the sensitivity of hs-cTnT increased from 80 to 92% and the negative predictive values increased from 82.4 to 91.8%. Using 11 ng/L as a decision-making cutoff point for hs-cTnT facilitated earlier prediction of NSTEMI in middle-aged patients than the conventional 14 ng/L cutoff. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding in larger group of patients.Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis 01/2014; 28(1). DOI:10.1002/jcla.21636 · 1.14 Impact Factor
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 10/2013; DOI:10.1053/j.jvca.2013.05.024 · 1.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although patients with Stanford type A acute aortic dissection often show ST-T abnormalities at presentation, the frequency and implication of such findings remain unclear. To clarify these points, admission electrocardiograms from 233 patients admitted ≤6 hours after symptom onset who underwent emergency surgery for type A acute aortic dissection were studied. The prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) patterns was 51% for ST-T abnormalities (4% for ST-segment elevation and 47% for ST-segment depression and/or negative T waves), 30% for normal ECG findings or no significant ST-T changes, and 19% for ECG confounders such as bundle branch block or left ventricular hypertrophy. Patients with ST-T abnormalities had higher prevalence of pericardial effusion (48% vs 9% and 38%), cardiac tamponade (28% vs 3% and 18%), moderate or severe aortic regurgitation (28% vs 7% and 18%), shock on admission (34% vs 3% and 13%), coronary ostial involvement (14% vs 1% and 2%), concomitant coronary artery bypass surgery (9% vs 1% and 0%), and in-hospital mortality (11% vs 1% and 4%) compared with patients with normal ECG findings or no significant ST-T changes and those who had ECG confounders (p <0.05 for all). On multivariate analysis, ST-T abnormalities were the only independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 3.87, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 14.7, p = 0.035). In conclusion, about 50% of patients who underwent emergency surgery for type A acute aortic dissection had ST-T abnormalities, characterized predominantly by ST-segment depression or negative T waves, in the acute phase. ST-T abnormalities were associated with more complicated features and independently predicted in-hospital death.The American journal of cardiology 05/2013; 112(3). DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.03.050 · 3.43 Impact Factor