CR3 complement receptor: cloning and characterization in rainbow trout.
ABSTRACT The beta 2 integrin CR3 is a leukocyte adhesion heterodimeric glycoprotein which functions both as receptor for iC3b and in several cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion interactions. In order to elucidate the molecular evolution of the CR3 receptor, here we report the cloning and characterization of its beta2 (CD18) and aM (CD11b) subunits in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The predicted polypeptide sequences of trout CD18 and CD11b-like exhibit 50, 49, or 61% and 25, 25, or 30% identity with human, mouse, and zebrafish orthologs, respectively. The 'domain' architecture of trout CD18 and CD11b-like subunits retains several characteristics of the mammalian ortholog proteins, such as cysteine-rich regions, N-linked glycosylation sites and several proposed domains and signal sequences (von Willebrand factor type A, Integrin alpha, Integrin B tail, EGF, and Transmembrane domain). The tissue expression profiles of trout CR3 subunits diverge from those of mammalian counterparts, showing the kidney as the main source of the trout CD18 and CD11b-like mRNA transcripts. This is the first report of cloning and characterization of the CR3 receptor in low vertebrates.
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Article: Bit-Flipping BIST[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A scan-based BIST scheme is presented which guarantees complete fault coverage with very low hardware overhead. A probabilistic analysis shows that the output of an LFSR which feeds a scan path has to be modified only at a few bits in order to transform the random patterns into a complete test set. These modifications may be implemented by a bit-flipping function which has the LFSR-state as an input, and flips the value shifted into the scan path at certain times. A procedure is described for synthesizing the additional bit-flipping circuitry, and the experimental results indicate that this mixed-mode BIST scheme requires less hardware for complete fault coverage than all the other scan-based BIST approaches published so far. Keywords: Mixed-Mode BIST 1. Introduction Built-in self-test (BIST) is one of the most important techniques for testing large and complex systems. The efficiency of a BIST implementation is characterized by the test length and the hardware overhead required to ...
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ABSTRACT: DNA vaccines encoding the viral glycoproteins of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) have proved highly efficient in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under experimental conditions. Non-specific as well as specific immune mechanisms seem to be activated. Temperature is an important external parameter affecting the immune response in fish. The present study aimed at determining the effectiveness of a DNA vaccine against VHS at different temperatures. Rainbow trout fingerlings acclimated at 5 degrees C, 10 degrees C or 15 degrees C, were given an intramuscular injection of 1 microg purified plasmid DNA and challenged with virulent VHSV 8 or 36-40 days later. The vaccine protected the fish well at all three temperatures, but the involvement of innate and adaptive mechanisms differed: at low temperature, non-specific protection lasted longer and at 36 dpv fish kept at 5 degrees C had no detectable response of neutralizing antibodies while 67% of the fish kept at 15 degrees C had seroconverted. Induction of Mx as measured in liver samples was delayed at 5 degrees C with no detectable response 7 dpv whereas fish maintained at 10 degrees C had significantly elevated levels of Mx3-transcripts at that time point. Immunohistochemical studies of the injection site of vaccinated fish also showed a clear effect of temperature: in fish maintained at 15 degrees C the vhsG-protein appeared earlier on the surface of transfected myocytes and the inflammatory response clearing away these myocytes arose earlier compared to fish kept at the lower temperatures of 5 and 10 degrees C.Vaccine 05/2009; 27(29):3870-80. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.04.012 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It has long been held that the cold-blooded vertebrates lack mammalian-like germinal centers, though they do have affinity maturation and the immunoglobulin mutator activation-induced cytidine deaminase or AID. Using AID as a marker of sites of somatic hypermutation, we have identified discrete cell clusters of up to several thousand cells, in the spleen and kidney of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), which may be primordial germinal centers. In situ hybridization revealed that AID expressing cells are interspersed or surrounded by a population of pigmented CSF1-R expressing cells called melano-macrophages. Significantly, melano-macrophages or associated reticular cells have been previously noted for their ability to retain soluble antigen on or near their surface for several weeks following vaccination. Laser capture microdissection and RT-PCR were used to establish that these cell clusters also contained cells expressing Ig heavy chain transcripts as well as transcripts of TcRbeta and the putative CD4 homologue of fish. These observations, coupled with past work showing that mutations develop in B-cell lineages in fishes, allow us to develop a model for how affinity maturation may have evolved in early gnathostome vertebrates.Developmental and comparative immunology 06/2010; 34(6):669-76. DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2010.01.013 · 3.71 Impact Factor