CR3 complement receptor: cloning and characterization in rainbow trout.
ABSTRACT The beta 2 integrin CR3 is a leukocyte adhesion heterodimeric glycoprotein which functions both as receptor for iC3b and in several cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion interactions. In order to elucidate the molecular evolution of the CR3 receptor, here we report the cloning and characterization of its beta2 (CD18) and aM (CD11b) subunits in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The predicted polypeptide sequences of trout CD18 and CD11b-like exhibit 50, 49, or 61% and 25, 25, or 30% identity with human, mouse, and zebrafish orthologs, respectively. The 'domain' architecture of trout CD18 and CD11b-like subunits retains several characteristics of the mammalian ortholog proteins, such as cysteine-rich regions, N-linked glycosylation sites and several proposed domains and signal sequences (von Willebrand factor type A, Integrin alpha, Integrin B tail, EGF, and Transmembrane domain). The tissue expression profiles of trout CR3 subunits diverge from those of mammalian counterparts, showing the kidney as the main source of the trout CD18 and CD11b-like mRNA transcripts. This is the first report of cloning and characterization of the CR3 receptor in low vertebrates.
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ABSTRACT: Complement component C3 plays a central role in all known complement activation pathways. In the present study, we cloned, sequenced and analysed the full-length cDNA sequence of Labeo rohita complement C3 (LRC3). The expression pattern of complement C3 mRNA in different tissues of healthy rohu and after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila were evaluated using real-time PCR. The LRC3 cDNA sequence of rohu comprised of 5081 bp encoding a predicted protein of 1645 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence had the characteristic domain architecture. About eight domains specific to complement C3 are present in the sequence starting from signal peptide to netrin C345C (NTR) domain. The post-translational processing signal sequence (RKRR), the C3-convertase cleavage site sequence (LAR) and the canonical thiol-ester motif (GCGEQ) were found to be conserved in the LRC3. Real-time PCR analysis revealed the highest expression of C3 in liver and extra-hepatic expression of C3 was also observed in all the tissues studied. A. hydrophila challenge resulted in significant up-regulated expression of C3 transcripts in both liver and kidney at 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-infection.Fish & Shellfish Immunology 07/2014; · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The major hindrance in the development and sustainability of aquaculture industry is the occurrence of various diseases in the farming systems. Today, preventive and management measures are central concern to overcome such outbreak of diseases. Immunostimulants are considered as an effective tool for enhancing immune status of cultured organisms. Among different immunostimulants used in aquaculture practices, β-glucan is one of the promising immunostimulant, which is a homopolysaccharide of glucose molecule linked by the glycoside bond. It forms the major constituents of cell wall of some plants, fungi, bacteria, mushroom, yeast, and seaweeds. Major attention on β-glucan was captivated with the gain in knowledge on its receptors and the mechanism of action. The receptor present inside the animal body recognizes and binds to β-glucan, which in turn renders the animal with high resistance and enhanced immune response. This review highlights β-glucan as an immunostimulant, its effective dosages, and route of administration and furthermore provides an outline on role of β-glucan in enhancing growth, survival, and protection against infectious pathogens pertaining to fishes and shellfishes. Study also summarizes the effect of β-glucan on its receptors, recognition of proteins, immune-related enzymes, immune-related gene expression and their mechanisms of action.Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 09/2012; · 1.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: β-glucans are glucose polymers that are found in the cell walls of plants, bacteria, certain fungi, mushrooms and the cell wall of baker's yeast. In mammals, myeloid cells express several receptors capable of recognizing β-glucans, with the C-type lectin receptor dectin-1 in conjunction with Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), considered key receptors for recognition of β-glucan. In our studies to determine the possible involvement of these receptors on carp macrophages a range of sources of β-glucans were utilised including particulate β-glucan preparations of baker's yeast such as zymosan, which is composed of insoluble β-glucan and mannan, and MacroGard®, a β-glucan-based feed ingredient for farmed animals including several fish species. Both preparations were confirmed TLR2 ligands by measuring activation of HEK293 cells transfected with human TLR2 and CD14, co-transfected with a secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter gene. In addition, dectin-1-specific ligands in mammals i.e. zymosan treated to deplete the TLR-stimulating properties and curdlan, were monitored for their effects on carp macrophages by measuring reactive oxygen and nitrogen radicals production, as well as cytokine gene expression by real time PCR. Results clearly show the ability of carp macrophages to strongly react to particulate β-glucans with an increase in the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen radicals and increase in cytokine gene expression, in particular il-1β, il-6 and il-11. We identified carp il-6, that was previously unknown. In addition, carp macrophages are less, but not unresponsive to selective dectin-1 agonists, suggesting recognition of β-glucans by multiple pattern recognition receptors that could include TLR but also non-TLR receptors. Candidate receptors for recognition of β-glucans are discussed.Fish & Shellfish Immunology 07/2013; · 2.96 Impact Factor