Sex-dependent differences in aged rat brain mitochondrial function and oxidative stress.
ABSTRACT Females show lower incidences of several neurodegenerative diseases related to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction than males. In addition, female rats show more differentiated mitochondria than males in several tissues. The aim of this work was to investigate the existence of sex-dependent differences in brain mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative balance in aged rats. Results showed that aged female rat brain had a lower mitochondria content than aged male brain but with a greater differentiation degree given the higher mitochondrial protein content and mitochondrial complex activities in females. Female rat brain also showed a better oxidative balance than that of males, reflected by the fact that higher mitochondrial respiratory chain function is accompanied by a similar ROS production and greater antioxidant enzyme activities, which could be responsible for the lesser oxidative damage observed in proteins and lipids in this sex. Interestingly, levels of UCP4 and UCP5--proteins related to a decrease in ROS production--were also higher in females. In conclusion, aged female rat brain had more differentiated mitochondria than male brain and showed a better control of oxidative stress balance, which could be due, in part, to the neuroprotective effect of UCPs.
Article: The Mediterranean diet improves the systemic lipid and DNA oxidative damage in metabolic syndrome individuals. A randomized, controlled, trial[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Keywords: Mediterranean diet Oxidative stress Metabolic syndrome DNA damage F2-isoprostanes PREDIMED s u m m a r y Background & aims: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), in which a non-classic feature is an increase in systemic oxidative biomarkers, presents a high risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is associated with a reduced risk of MetS. However, the effect of the MedDiet on biomarkers for oxidative damage has not been assessed in MetS individuals. We have investigated the effect of the MedDiet on systemic oxidative biomarkers in MetS individuals. Methods: Randomized, controlled, parallel clinical trial in which 110 female with MetS, aged 55e80, were recruited into a large trial (PREDIMED Study) to test the efficacy of the traditional MedDiet on the primary prevention of CVD. Participants were assigned to a low-fat diet or two traditional MedDiets (MedDiet þ virgin olive oil or MedDiet þ nuts). Both MedDiet group participants received nutritional education and either free extra virgin olive oil for all the family (1 L/week), or free nuts (30 g/day). Diets were ad libitum. Changes in urine levels of F2-Isoprostane (F2-IP) and the DNA damage base 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 0 -deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) were evaluated at 1-year trial. Results: After 1-year urinary F2-IP decreased in all groups, the decrease in MedDiet groups reaching a borderline significance versus that of the Control group. Urinary 8-oxo-dG was also reduced in all groups, with a higher decrease in both MedDiet groups versus the Control one (P < 0.001). Conclusions: MedDiet reduces oxidative damage to lipids and DNA in MetS individuals. Data from this study provide evidence to recommend the traditional MedDiet as a useful tool in the MetS management. Registered under Clinical Trials.gov Identifier no. NCT00123456.Clinical Nutrition 09/2012; · 3.73 Impact Factor