Pneumococcal vaccination in nursing homes: does race make a difference?
ABSTRACT Known disparities in pneumococcal vaccination in the community raise the question of whether disparities also exist in the nursing home setting, which is better controlled. This study used nationally representative nursing home data to compare black and white nursing home residents with respect to receiving, not receiving, or having an unknown PPV vaccination status, and to examine the interaction of race with various facility characteristics.
Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze a 2-year merged file (1997 and 1999) of the National Nursing Home Survey, a cross-sectional national probability sample of nursing homes and residents.
Residents 65 years or older (n = 14,782) residing in nursing homes between July and December of 1997 or 1999.
Record-based staff report of whether residents ever had a pneumococcal immunization (yes/no/unknown); race measured as black or white.
Pneumococcal vaccination rates are lower for black nursing home residents than for white residents, as shown using a merged file of the 1997 and 1999 National Nursing Home Surveys. Participants include 14,303 randomly sampled residents 65 years or older. In this sample, 31% of black residents compared with 24% of white residents 65 years or older had never received pneumococcal vaccination (P < .01). Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that blacks were more likely to be unimmunized than whites (95% CIs), specifically in Medicaid-only facilities and dually certified Medicare and Medicaid facilities. Blacks also had higher odds of unknown vaccination status than whites in Medicaid-only facilities and lower odds of unknown status in government-owned facilities.
Results suggest that the racial difference in pneumococcal vaccination exists predominantly in certain facility types. In addition, facility-based interventions such as having an organized PPV immunization program or improving documentation of vaccination status can be effective in increasing vaccination rates for all races.
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ABSTRACT: The occurrence of pressure ulcers (PUs) in nursing homes is a marker for poor quality of care. We examine whether differences in PU prevalence between black and white residents are due to within- or across-facility disparities. Minimum Data Sets (2006-2007) are linked with the Online Survey Certification and Reporting database. Long-term care residents with high risk for PUs are identified. The dependent variable is dichotomous, indicating PU presence/absence. Individual race and facility race-mix are the main variables of interests.The sample includes 59,740 long-term care high-risk residents (17.4% black and 82.6% white) in 619 nursing homes. We fit 3 risk-adjusted logit models: base, conditional fixed-effects, and random-effects. Unadjusted PU prevalence is 14.5% (18.2% for blacks and 13.8% for whites). Overall, blacks are more likely to have PUs than whites, controlling for individual risk factors. We find no such effect within facilities after additional accounting for facility fixed effects. The effect of race is significantly different between the base and the conditional fixed-effects logit model. The random-effects and conditional fixed-effects logit models show similar results, demonstrating that higher PU presence among blacks is associated with greater facility-specific concentration of black residents. Greater PU occurrence among blacks may not result from differential within-facility treatment of blacks versus whites. Rather, blacks are more likely to reside in facilities with poorer care quality. To improve PU care for blacks, efforts should focus on improving the overall quality of care for facilities with high proportion of black residents.Medical care 03/2010; 48(3):233-9. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To understand the potential roles of various patient and provider factors in the underuse of pneumococcal vaccination in Medicare-eligible older African Americans. The Cardiovascular Health Study. Four U.S. states. Seven hundred ninety-five pairs of community-dwelling Medicare-eligible African-American and white adults aged 65 and older, balanced according to age and sex. Data on self-reported race, receipt of pneumococcal vaccination, and other important sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected at baseline. Participants had a mean age ± standard deviation of 73 ± 6; 63% were female. Pneumococcal vaccination rates were 22% for African Americans and 28% for whites (unadjusted odds ratios (OR) for African Americans=0.75; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.60-0.94; P=.01). This association remained significant despite adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical confounders, including education, income, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and prior pneumonia (OR=0.74, 95% CI=0.56-0.97; P=.03), but the association was no longer significant after additional adjustment for the receipt of influenza vaccination (OR=0.79, 95% CI=0.59-1.06; P=.12). Receipt of influenza vaccination was associated with higher odds of receiving pneumococcal vaccination (unadjusted OR=6.43, 95% CI=5.00-8.28; P<.001), and the association between race and pneumococcal vaccination lost significance when adjusted for influenza vaccination alone (OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.63-1.03; P=.09). The strong association between receipt of influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations suggests that patient and provider attitudes toward vaccination, rather than traditional confounders such as education and income, may help explain the underuse of pneumococcal vaccination in older African Americans.Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 12/2010; 58(12):2323-8. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We examined racial disparities in receipt and documentation of influenza and pneumococcus vaccinations among nursing-home residents. We performed secondary analyses of data from a nationally representative survey of White (n = 11 448) and Black (n = 1174) nursing-home residents in 2004. Bivariate and multivariate analyses determined racial disparities in receipt of influenza vaccination in 2003 and 2004, receipt of pneumococcus vaccination ever, and having a documented history for each vaccination. The overall vaccination rate was 76.2% for influenza and 48.5% for pneumococcus infection. Compared with Whites, Blacks showed a 13% lower vaccination rate and a 5% higher undocumentation rate for influenza, and a 15% lower vaccination rate and a 7% higher undocumentation rate for pneumococcus. For influenza, the odds ratio (OR) for Blacks being unvaccinated was 1.84 (P < or = .001), and the OR for Blacks having undocumented vaccination was 1.85 (P = .001). For pneumococcus infection, the OR for Blacks being unvaccinated was 1.70 (P < or = .001), and the OR for Blacks having undocumented vaccination was 1.95 (P < or = .001). Stratified analyses confirmed persistent racial disparities among subpopulations. Racial disparities exist in vaccination coverage among US nursing-home residents. Targeted interventions to improve vaccination coverage for minority nursing-home residents are warranted.American Journal of Public Health 02/2010; 100 Suppl 1:S256-62. · 3.93 Impact Factor