Prognostic models and algorithms in renal cell carcinoma.
ABSTRACT Although surgical treatment is curative for localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC), 25% of patients present with locally advanced or disseminated disease, and disease will recur systemically in another 20% to 30% of those who have localized disease at presentation. Many clinical, histologic, and molecular factors have been identified that place patients who have localized RCC at greater risk for recurrence and those who have metastatic disease at risk for progression or death. This article reviews the major prognostic factors for RCC and the most commonly used algorithms developed for use before or after nephrectomy and before initiation of systemic therapy. These RCC nomograms allow more accurate counseling of patients regarding their likely clinical course and facilitate treatment planning.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the factors affecting the time to recurrence after radical nephrectomy for localized renal cell carcinoma. We retrospectively evaluated 321 patients who received radical nephrectomies for localized renal cell carcinoma (pT1a-pT2b N0M0). Of 29 patients with disease recurrence, 9 had recurrence more than 5 years after radical nephrectomy. We evaluated the clinicopathological factors, with the use of a retrospective study design. Tumor necrosis was statistically different between the late recurrence group and the recurrence free group (Fisher exact test, p=0.046). Hematuria at diagnosis (chi-square test, p=0.045) was statistically significant in early recurrence. In the univariate logistic regression analysis, tumor necrosis (odds ratio [OR], 4.629; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.106 to 19.379; p=0.036) and pT stage>1 (OR, 7.232; 95% CI, 1.727 to 30.280; p=0.007) were risk factors of late recurrence. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, pT stage>1 (OR, 7.143; 5% CI 1.706 to 29.912, p=0.007) was associated with late recurrence. Regarding early recurrence, initial symptoms at diagnosis and pathologic T stage>1 were statistically significant in both univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis. In terms of recurrence site, patients with late recurrence tended to have unusual metastasis sites other than lung, liver or bone (chi-square test, p=0.012). These data suggest that tumor necrosis may affect late disease recurrence. Patients with initial symptoms and hematuria at diagnosis are vulnerable to recurrence in a shorter period after nephrectomy. Patients with late recurrence showed a tendency to have unusual metastasis site other than lung, liver or bone.Korean journal of urology 11/2013; 54(11):744-749.
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ABSTRACT: The clinical course of renal cancer remains difficult to predict. Attempts to appoint new independent prognostic factors (IPFs) and comparisons of already identified ones among populations are inevitable to develop more effective prognostic instruments. The aim of this study was to evaluate IPFs of overall survival in a given population of patients with renal cancer. Retrospective analysis of 148 patients with renal cancer treated at the Oncological Institute in Cracow from 2000 to 2007 was performed. Mean follow-up was 51 months. Using the log-rang test, a group of clinicopathological and biochemical features was analyzed in respect to their influence on overall survival. Results were presented as Kaplan-Meier curves. Final identification of IPFs was made by multivariate Cox regression analysis. Overall survival rate at 1, 2, and 5-year follow-up was 58.8%, 38.2%, and 21.4%, respectively. The set of identified IPFs consisted of performance status, smoking history, hemoglobin concentration, anatomical staging, tumor grade, and the presence of microvascular invasion. It was confirmed that only nephrectomy increases significantly overall survival. Apart from smoking history, the role of all other IPFs identified in our study is well documented in the literature. Smoking history seems to be a new IPF with strong negative impact on survival in patients with RCC.Central European journal of urology. 01/2013; 66(3):283-91.
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ABSTRACT: In the past decade, the medical and oncological rationale for kidney-sparing surgical approaches for small renal masses has been clarified. Although radical nephrectomy is still necessary for many patients diagnosed with large renal tumours, accumulating evidence indicates that partial nephrectomy provides equivalent oncological outcomes while also preserving renal function and preventing the adverse cardiovascular effects of chronic kidney disease. Furthermore, approximately 45% of resected small renal tumours are benign or indolent, with limited-if any-metastatic potential. Patients who develop kidney cancer often have medical comorbidities that can affect kidney function, such as diabetes and hypertension, and histological examination of the non-tumour-bearing elements of the kidney demonstrate significant pathological changes in the vast majority of patients. For elderly patients or patients with comorbidities, active surveillance provides an alternative kidney-sparing approach, and is associated with extremely low rates of clinical disease progression and metastases. Despite these important advances in understanding, which support the use of partial nephrectomy for the treatment of small renal masses, the technique remains underused.Nature Reviews Urology 03/2013; · 4.79 Impact Factor