Prognostic models and algorithms in renal cell carcinoma.
ABSTRACT Although surgical treatment is curative for localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC), 25% of patients present with locally advanced or disseminated disease, and disease will recur systemically in another 20% to 30% of those who have localized disease at presentation. Many clinical, histologic, and molecular factors have been identified that place patients who have localized RCC at greater risk for recurrence and those who have metastatic disease at risk for progression or death. This article reviews the major prognostic factors for RCC and the most commonly used algorithms developed for use before or after nephrectomy and before initiation of systemic therapy. These RCC nomograms allow more accurate counseling of patients regarding their likely clinical course and facilitate treatment planning.
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ABSTRACT: Outcomes after surgical removal of localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are variable. There have been multiple prognostic nomograms and risk groups developed for estimation of survival outcomes, with different models in use for evaluating patient eligibility in ongoing trials of adjuvant therapy. The authors aimed to establish the most useful prognostic model for patients with localized RCC to guide trial design, biomarker research, and clinical counseling. A total of 390 consecutive patients who underwent nephrectomy for sporadic localized RCC in a tertiary institution (1990-2006) with 65 months median follow-up were retrospectively evaluated. The Karakiewicz nomogram, the Kattan nomogram, the Sorbellini nomogram, and the Leibovich model were compared in predicting survival outcomes (overall survival, cancer-specific survival, and freedom from recurrence) using likelihood analysis, adequacy indices, decision curve analysis, calibration, and concordance indices. Overall, the Karakiewicz nomogram outperformed the Kattan nomogram, the Sorbellini nomogram, and the Leibovich model. Highly improved accuracy was seen using the Karakiewicz nomogram in survival prediction, using likelihood ratio analysis in bivariate models including the competing prognostic models. The Karakiewicz nomogram showed higher adequacy and concordance indices and improved clinical benefit relative to all other nomograms. All 4 models were reasonably calibrated. Exploratory comparisons of prespecified discretized Karakiewicz nomograms and the SORCE trial recruitment criteria (a discretized Leibovich model) of high-risk patients favored the discretized Karakiewicz nomograms. The Karakiewicz nomogram was shown to be superior to the other tested nomograms and risk groups in predicting survival outcomes in localized RCC. Routine integration of this model into trial design and biomarker research should be considered.Cancer 05/2011; 117(23):5314-24. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To describe the surgical complication rate of open partial nephrectomy (OPN) in patients with renal tumours, and to report the oncological long-term outcome in unilateral renal cell cancer patients subjected to this procedure, from a medium patient volume urological centre. Data from all patients (n = 89) subjected to OPN for proven or suspected renal cell cancer during the period 1965-2007 were registered in a specifically designed database system. Tumour stage and size, surgical margin, histology, perioperative and postoperative complications were analysed in all patients. In addition, long-term follow-up outcomes in malignant unilateral tumours (n = 51) were analysed. Seventy-four of the resected tumours were malignant. Six of these had a positive surgical margin; five from patients with multifocal or bilateral tumours and one from a patient with a solitary malignant cyst. Perioperative complications were registered in only one case (1%). Postoperative complications (within 30 days postoperatively) reached 18%. The long-term follow-up (mean 79 months, median 49 months, range 14 months to 26 years) in patients with unilateral malignant tumours, all staged T1-T2, revealed two systemic recurrences, both in patients with poor prognostic markers at the time of surgery, but no local recurrence. OPN has complication rates similar to open radical nephrectomy. Long-term tumour control in unilateral cases and with organ confined disease is excellent. The results demonstrate that carefully performed OPN at a medium-volume centre can achieve equal results to high-volume centres.Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology 05/2010; 44(4):204-11. · 1.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the past decade, the medical and oncological rationale for kidney-sparing surgical approaches for small renal masses has been clarified. Although radical nephrectomy is still necessary for many patients diagnosed with large renal tumours, accumulating evidence indicates that partial nephrectomy provides equivalent oncological outcomes while also preserving renal function and preventing the adverse cardiovascular effects of chronic kidney disease. Furthermore, approximately 45% of resected small renal tumours are benign or indolent, with limited-if any-metastatic potential. Patients who develop kidney cancer often have medical comorbidities that can affect kidney function, such as diabetes and hypertension, and histological examination of the non-tumour-bearing elements of the kidney demonstrate significant pathological changes in the vast majority of patients. For elderly patients or patients with comorbidities, active surveillance provides an alternative kidney-sparing approach, and is associated with extremely low rates of clinical disease progression and metastases. Despite these important advances in understanding, which support the use of partial nephrectomy for the treatment of small renal masses, the technique remains underused.Nature Reviews Urology 03/2013; · 4.79 Impact Factor