Comparison of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of aspirin following oral gavage and diet dosing in rats

Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Blvd., Rm. 2116, Bethesda, MD 20892, United States.
Chemico-biological interactions (Impact Factor: 2.46). 11/2008; 179(2-3):233-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2008.10.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Aspirin is one of the oldest drugs and has been purported to have multiple beneficial effects, including prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer, in addition to its original indication for treatment of inflammation, fever and pain. In cancer chemoprevention studies using animal models, two methods of aspirin administration have been employed: oral gavage and diet. The untested assumption was that exposure and the resultant pharmacological effects are similar for these two administration methods when dosing is normalized on the basis of mg/kg body weight/day. This study examined and compared time-dependent plasma and colon mucosal concentrations of aspirin metabolite salicylate (aspirin concentrations were below level of quantification), plasma thromboxane B(2) concentrations, and colon mucosal prostaglandin E(2) concentration following these two different dosing paradigms in rats. Diet dosing yielded relatively constant plasma and colon salicylate concentration vs. time profiles. On the other hand, oral gavage dosing led to a rapid peak followed by a fast decline in salicylate concentration in both plasma and colon. Nevertheless, the exposure as measured by the area under plasma or colon concentration-time curve of salicylate was linearly related to dose irrespective of the dosing method. Linear relationships were also observed between colon and plasma salicylate areas under the curve and between colon prostaglandin E(2) and plasma thromboxane B(2) areas under the curve. Therefore, more easily accessible plasma salicylate and thromboxane B(2) concentrations were representative of the salicylate exposure and prostaglandin E(2) pharmacodynamic biomarker in the target colon, respectively.

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    ABSTRACT: AIM: To investigate the effects of long term pretreatment with low-, medium- and high-dose aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA) on a model of acute pancreatitis (AP) induced in rats. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats were used. Three experimental groups, each consisting of eight animals, received low- (5 mg/kg per day), medium- (150 mg/kg per day) and high-dose (350 mg/kg per day) ASA in supplemented pellet chow for 100 d. Eight animals, serving as the AP-control group, and another eight, serving as reference value (RV) group, were fed with standard pellet chow for the same period. After pretreatment, AP was induced in the experimental animals by intraperitoneal administration of cerulein (2 × 50 μg/kg), while the RV group received saline in the same way. Twelve hours after the second injection, the animals were sacrificed. Pancreatic tissue and plasma samples were collected. One part of the collected pancreatic tissues was used for histopathological evaluation, and the remaining portion was homogenized. Cytokine levels [tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6], hemogram parameters, biochemical parameters (amylase and lipase), nuclear factor-κB, aspirin triggered lipoxins and parameters related to the antioxidant system (malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, hemeoxygenase-1, catalase and superoxide dismutase) were measured. RESULTS: Cerulein administration induced mild pancreatitis, characterized by interstitial edema (total histopathological score of 5.88 ± 0.44 vs 0.25 ± 0.16, P < 0.001). Subsequent pancreatic tissue damage resulted in an increase in amylase (2829.71 ± 772.48 vs 984.57 ± 49.22 U/L, P = 0.001) and lipase (110.14 ± 75.84 U/L vs 4.71 ± 0.78 U/L, P < 0.001) in plasma, and leucocytes (6.89 ± 0.48 vs 4.36 ± 0.23, P = 0.001) in peripheral blood. Cytokines, IL-1β (18.81 ± 2.55 pg/μg vs 6.65 ± 0.24 pg/μg, P = 0.002) and IL-6 (14.62 ± 1.98 pg/μg vs 9.09 ± 1.36 pg/μg, P = 0.04) in pancreatic tissue also increased. Aspirin pretreatment reduced the increase in the aforementioned parameters to a certain degree and partially improved the histopathological alterations caused by cerulein. No evidence of side effects related to chronic ASA administration (e.g., inflammation or bleeding) was observed in the gastrointestinal tract in macroscopic and histopathological examination. CONCLUSION: Long term ASA pretreatment could prevent and/or ameliorate certain hematological, serological and histological alterations caused by cerulein-induced AP.
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