Oral Candidosis in HIV-Infected Patients

Department of Fixed Prosthodontics, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Suita City, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.
Current HIV research (Impact Factor: 1.76). 12/2008; 6(6):485-99. DOI: 10.2174/157016208786501445
Source: PubMed


Oral candidosis (syn. Oral candidiasis; OC), is a collective term given to a group of oral mucosal disorders caused by the fugal pathogen belonging to the genus Candida. The association of OC with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been known since the advent of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic. OC is one of the earliest manifestations of HIV disease in high risk individuals not undergoing chemotherapy and is also a strong predictor of the subsequent risk of AIDS-related illness or death. With the advances in HIV therapy, such as highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), the prevalence and presenting features of OC have changed in HIV-infected individuals, especially those in industrialized countries. The presence of OC in "controlled" HIV-positive individuals may be indicative of a patient nonadherence to therapy or possible failure. The factors contributing to the genesis of OC and its progression in these individuals are poorly understood, but may include an interrelationship between HIV and Candida and/or a dysfunction in the local immunity, superimposed on weakened cell-mediated immunity and depletion of CD4 T cells. The dramatic increase in publications on this topic matches the increased importance and awareness of this opportunistic infection in HIV-infected individuals. In this review we first address the epidemiologic and clinical features of OC in HIV-infected persons, followed by the current understanding of the pathogenesis of OC in the context of HIV infection with a concluding section on the current management concepts of OC.

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Available from: Lakshman P. Samaranayake,
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    • "These are opportunistic pathogens that can be spread and transferred through the oral cavity [18]. Candida causes common opportunistic infections known as oral candidiasis found in patients with immune deficiency [19]. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a deadly infectious agent that exists epidemically on hospital instrument [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different types of disinfectant agents on alginate impression material after 5 and 10 minutes. Method and Materials. In this in vitro experimental study, 66 circular samples of alginate impression material were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans fungus. Except for control samples, all of them were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite 0.525, Deconex, and Epimax by way of spraying. Afterwards, they were kept in plastic bags with humid rolled cotton for 5 and 10 minutes. The number of colonies was counted after 24 and 48 hours for bacteria and after 72 hours for fungus. Statistical Mann-Whitney test was used for data analysis (α = 0.05). Results. After 5 minutes, Epimax showed the highest disinfection action on Staphylococcus aureus as it completely eradicated the bacteria. The disinfection capacity of different agents can be increased as time elapses except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa which was eradicated completely in both 5 and 10 minutes. Conclusion. This study revealed that alginate can be effectively disinfected by three types of disinfecting agents by spraying method, although Epimax showed the highest disinfection action after 10 minutes compared to other agents.
    07/2012; 2012:695151. DOI:10.5402/2012/695151
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    • "However many examples of facilitation can be found in the literature. HIV and oral candidiasis is potentially a good example of one-way facilitation [23]. Candida albicans, the fungus that causes oral candidiasis, is a commensal in the normal human oral mucosa. "
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    ABSTRACT: Host individuals are often infected with more than one parasite species (parasites defined broadly, to include viruses and bacteria). Yet, research in infection biology is dominated by studies on single-parasite infections. A focus on single-parasite infections is justified if the interactions among parasites are additive, however increasing evidence points to non-additive interactions being the norm. Here we review this evidence and theoretically explore the implications of non-additive interactions between co-infecting parasites. We use classic Lotka-Volterra two-species competition equations to investigate the within-host dynamical consequences of various mixes of competition and facilitation between a pair of co-infecting species. We then consider the implications of these dynamics for the virulence (damage to host) of co-infections and consequent evolution of parasite strategies of exploitation. We find that whereas one-way facilitation poses some increased virulence risk, reciprocal facilitation presents a qualitatively distinct destabilization of within-host dynamics and the greatest risk of severe disease.
    PLoS ONE 06/2012; 7(6):e38730. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0038730 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Oral candidiasis (OC) is a collective term for a group of oral mucosal infection caused by a fungal pathogen candida. It is one of the earliest manifestations of HIV disease and is also a strong predictor of AIDS-related illness or death [5]. Majority of HIV patients usually suffers from chronic diarrhoea (CD) during their period of HIV infection [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Opportunistic Infections (OIs) and co-infections are the major cause of deaths amongst HIV infected individuals and this mostly depends upon the risk factors, type of exposure and geographic region. The commonest types of infections reported are tuberculosis, chronic diarrhoea, oral candidiasis, herpes simplex virus-2, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. Due to the scarcity of OIs data available from this region, we had designed a study to determine the frequency of different OIs amongst HIV seropositive patients. Analysis of the different spectrum of OIs/Co-infections were carried out with 204 HIV sero-positive patients (142 males and 62 females) who visited the HIV/AIDS Apex Clinic in a tertiary care hospital from March 2006 to March 2009. The CD4+ count was estimated using FACS Calibur, the routine smear test, serology, nested RT-PCR and DNA sequencing were carried out to determine the different OIs. In this study, HIV seropositive patients were mostly from middle age group (31-40 yrs) with CD4+ counts in majority of symptomatic AIDS patients below 200 cells/mm3. The common co-infections/opportunistic infections were OC (53.43%), CD (47.05%), HSV-2 (36.76%), TB (35.29%), CMV (26.96%), HBV (15.19%) and HCV (7.35%). Dual infections, like HSV-2 & CMV (15.38%), HSV-2 & TB (14.61%), HSV-2 & oral candidiasis (24.61%) and CMV & oral candidiasis (14.61%) were significant in follow-up patients. Triple infections were also common e.g., TB, CD, OC infection occurring frequently in about 14.21% of the study population. Multiple infections like OC, TB, CD amongst the viral co-infected patients with HSV-2, HCV, CMV and HBV are also reported in this study. The genotyping analysis of the HCV co-infected HIV individuals shows that two belonged to HCV genotype 1 and 8 belonged to genotype 3. A wide spectrum of OIs were observed amongst HIV-infected patients in the HIV/AIDS Apex Clinic. Oral candidiasis, CD, CMV and HSV-2, were the common OIs in those patients. This study aims to provide a clearer picture regarding infections occurring amongst HIV seropositive individuals so that the scientific findings could be translated into sustainable prevention programmes and improved public health policies. None.
    Virology Journal 03/2011; 8(1):116. DOI:10.1186/1743-422X-8-116 · 2.18 Impact Factor
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